สารานุกรม -trading- กลยุทธ์ รูปแบบไฟล์ PDF

สารานุกรม -trading- กลยุทธ์ รูปแบบไฟล์ PDF

ที่ดีที่สุด ไบนารี ตัวเลือก การซื้อขาย แพลตฟอร์ม   2013
Binary   ตัวเลือก พ่อค้า ออสเตรเลีย
Forex- ขนส่งสินค้า ช้อปปิ้งออนไลน์


Forex- สัมมนา ฟิลิปปินส์ ปี 2015 10 จุด ต่อวัน -forex- กลยุทธ์ Forex- หุ่นยนต์ วิธี ไม่ มัน ทำงาน Go -forex- แอป Forex- ดีนาร์ ที่ดีที่สุด Forex โบรกเกอร์ ใน สิงคโปร์ ปี 2013

ราชอาณาจักรสวาซิแลนด์ทุน: Mbabane (บริหารและตุลาการ) Lobamba (พระราชและรัฐสภา) ธง: สีฟ้าสีเหลืองสีแดงเข้มสีเหลืองและสีฟ้าลายโล่และหอกของกองร้อย Emasotsha ซ้อนทับบนแถบสีแดงเข้ม ANTHEM: เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมีแห่งชาติเริ่มต้นพระเจ้าโปรดให้พรของพราหมณ์ หน่วยเงินตรา: lilangeni (pl. emalangeni e) จาก 100 เซนต์เป็นสกุลเงินกระดาษที่มีมูลค่าเท่ากับสกุลเงิน rand ของแอฟริกาใต้ซึ่งเป็นรายการซื้อตามกฎหมาย มีธนบัตร 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 และ 50 เซนต์, 1 ลิเลียน, และธนบัตร 2, 5, 10, 20 และ 50 emalangeni e1 0.16129 (หรือ 1 e6.2) ณ สิ้นปี 2548 น้ำหนักและค่าใช้จ่าย: ระบบเมตริกถูกแทนที่ด้วยน้ำหนักและมาตรการของประเทศในเดือนกันยายนปี 1969 วันหยุด: วันปีใหม่ 1 มกราคมวันชาติจักรภพวันจันทร์ที่ 2 ของเดือนมีนาคมในวันธงแห่งชาติ 25 เมษายน วันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษาพระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวรัชกาลที่ 2, วันที่ 22 กรกฏาคมอัมลางก้า (วันเต้นรำกก) วันจันทร์สุดท้ายในเดือนสิงหาคม Somhlolo (วันประกาศอิสรภาพ) วันที่ 6 กันยายนของสหประชาชาติวันคริสต์มาส 24 ตุลาคม 25 ธันวาคมวันมวย 26 ธันวาคม วันหยุดทางศาสนาที่เคลื่อนย้ายได้ ได้แก่ วันศุกร์วันศุกร์วันอังคารวันอีสเตอร์วันขึ้นปีใหม่การเสด็จขึ้นสู่สวรรค์และพิธี Incwala TIME: 14:00 น. ตามเวลา GMT ประเทศที่ไม่มีทางออกสู่ทะเลทางตอนใต้ของแอฟริกาประเทศสวาซิแลนด์มีเนื้อที่ 17,363 ตารางกิโลเมตร (6,704 ตารางไมล์), ยาว 176 กม. (109 ไมล์) n x2013 และ 135 กิโลเมตร (84 ไมล์) e x2013 w เปรียบเทียบพื้นที่ที่ Swaziland ครอบครองมีขนาดเล็กกว่ารัฐนิวเจอร์ซีย์เล็กน้อย ล้อมรอบด้วยโมซัมบิกในประเทศเนปาลและโดยสาธารณรัฐแห่งแอฟริกาใต้ (รวมทั้งประเทศบ้านเกิด) ในทะเล, s, w และ n โดยมีอาณาเขตยาวทั้งสิ้น 535 กิโลเมตร (332 ไมล์) เมืองหลวงของสวาซิแลนด์เมือง Mbabane ตั้งอยู่ทางตะวันตกเฉียงเหนือของประเทศ ประเทศแบ่งออกเป็นตะวันตกไปตะวันออกเป็นสี่ภูมิภาคที่กำหนดไว้อย่างชัดเจนสามแห่งแรกมีความกว้างเท่ากัน บริเวณสี่ทิศเหนือและทิศใต้ขยายและเป็นที่รู้จักกันในชื่อ veld สูงปานกลางและต่ำและที่ราบสูง Lebombo และที่สูงชัน ทางด้านตะวันตกมีความสูงประมาณ 1,050 เมตรถึง 1,200 เมตร (3445 ถึง 3,937 ฟุต) เฉลี่ยประมาณ 450 ถึง 600 ม. (1,476 ถึง 1,969 ฟุต) และต่ำหรือพุ่มต่ำกว่า 300 เมตร (984 ฟุต) veld ที่ราบ Lebombo ที่ความสูงโดยเฉลี่ยของ 610 ม. (2,000 ฟุต) ทอดตัวไปสู่แนวลาดชัน Lebombo ซึ่งเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของเทือกเขา Lebombo ทางตะวันออก ทั้งประเทศกำลังไหลผ่านแม่น้ำหรือลำธารทำให้เป็นพื้นที่รดน้ำที่ดีที่สุดแห่งหนึ่งในแอฟริกาใต้ แม่น้ำที่ยาวที่สุดคือ Great Usutu ซึ่งทอดตัวยาวจากตะวันตกไปตะวันออกผ่านศูนย์กลางของประเทศเป็นระยะทางทั้งสิ้น 217 กม. (135 ไมล์) ที่สูง veld มีสภาพภูมิอากาศใกล้กับพอสมควรชื้นกับประมาณ 140 ซม. (55 นิ้ว) ของปริมาณน้ำฝนประจำปี กลาง veld ค่อนข้างแห้งและแห้งประมาณ 85 เซนติเมตร (33 ใน) ปีฝนตกต่ำ veld เกือบจะร้อน subhumid รับฝนประมาณ 60 เซนติเมตร (24 ใน) ในปีเฉลี่ย ปริมาณน้ำฝนมีแนวโน้มที่จะกระจุกตัวอยู่ในพายุรุนแรงไม่กี่แห่งในฤดูร้อน (ตุลาคม x2013 มีนาคม) อุณหภูมิในช่วงฤดูหนาวมีตั้งแต่ 3 xB0 c (27 xB0 f) ในฤดูหนาวในที่ราบสูงถึง 42 xB0 c (108 xB0 f) ในฤดูร้อนในที่ราบลุ่ม ที่เมือง Mbabane อุณหภูมิเฉลี่ย 20 xB0 c (68 xB0 f) ในเดือนมกราคมและ 12 xB0 c (54 xB0 f) ในเดือนกรกฎาคม ทุ่งหญ้าสะวันนาพุ่มไม้ผสมและการขัดผิวส่วนใหญ่ของสวาซิแลนด์ มีป่าในที่ราบสูง Flora รวมถึงสาหร่ายกล้วยไม้และ begonias สัตว์เลี้ยงลูกด้วยนมขนาดใหญ่ในท้องถิ่น ได้แก่ wildebeest สีน้ำเงิน kudu, impala, zebra, waterbuck และ hippopotamus อย่างไรก็ตามสัตว์ป่าได้กลายเป็นพื้นที่หายากมากนอกพื้นที่ที่ได้รับการป้องกัน จระเข้อาศัยอยู่ในแม่น้ำลุ่ม ชีวิตนกมีมากมายและรวมถึงนกกระสายุโรป, sacred ibis และนกกระสาสีเทา ปัญหาสิ่งแวดล้อมที่สำคัญคือการพังทลายของดินและการย่อยสลายโดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งเนื่องจากการรมกรรโชก การเติบโตของประชากรและความต้องการใช้เชื้อเพลิงที่เพิ่มขึ้นได้คุกคามป่าประเทศและการตัดไม้ทำลายป่าทำให้การสูญเสียดินที่มีคุณค่า สวาซิแลนด์มีพื้นที่คุ้มครองอย่างน้อย 4 แห่งสำหรับสัตว์ป่า x2014 เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าสองแห่งและพื้นที่อนุรักษ์ธรรมชาติ 2 แห่ง x2014 ซึ่งมีพื้นที่ทั้งหมด 40,045 ไร่ (98,953 เอเคอร์) ทั้งหมดในภาคเหนือตอนเหนือของประเทศ ขณะที่ 2003, 3.5 ของประเทศรวมพื้นที่ได้รับการคุ้มครอง ปัญหาด้านสิ่งแวดล้อมที่สำคัญอีกประการหนึ่งของสวาซิแลนด์คือมลพิษทางอากาศจากยานพาหนะการขนส่งและการปล่อยมลพิษจากประเทศอื่น ๆ ในพื้นที่ มลพิษทางน้ำจากแหล่งอุตสาหกรรมและการเกษตรเป็นปัญหาเช่นเดียวกับการปนเปื้อนด้วยน้ำเสียที่ไม่ผ่านการบำบัดซึ่งก่อให้เกิดการแพร่กระจายของโรคที่คุกคามชีวิต ตามรายงานของสหภาพนานาชาติเพื่อการอนุรักษ์ธรรมชาติและทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ (IUCN) ประจำปีพ. ศ. 2549 จำนวนชนิดที่ถูกคุกคาม ได้แก่ สัตว์เลี้ยงลูกด้วยนม 6 ชนิดนก 6 ชนิดและพืช 11 ชนิด Burchells ม้าลายได้สูญพันธุ์แล้ว สายพันธุ์ทะเลที่ถูกคุกคาม ได้แก่ ปลาสเตอร์เจียนทะเลบอลติกปลาแซลมอนดานูบและหอยทาก เสือชีต้าและนกเพนกวินแหลมอยู่ในกลุ่มเสี่ยง ประชากรของสวาซิแลนด์ในปีพ. ศ. 2548 โดยองค์การสหประชาชาติ (สหประชาชาติ) อยู่ที่ 1,138,000 คนซึ่งวางไว้ที่ 150 ในหมู่ประชากร 193 ประเทศทั่วโลก ในปีพ. ศ. 2548 ประชากรประมาณ 3 คนมีอายุเกิน 65 ปีและอีก 43 คนมีอายุต่ำกว่า 15 ปี มีเพศชาย 93 คนต่อประชากร 100 คนในประเทศ ตามที่องค์การสหประชาชาติอัตราการเปลี่ยนแปลงของประชากรประจำปีสำหรับปีพ. ศ. 2548 x2013 พ.ศ. 2553 คาดว่าจะอยู่ที่ระดับ 0.3 ซึ่งเป็นอัตราที่รัฐบาลมองว่าสูงเกินไป ประชากรที่คาดการณ์ไว้สำหรับปี พ.ศ. 2568 คือ 1,009,000 ความหนาแน่นของประชากรคือ 66 / ตารางกิโลเมตร (170 ตารางไมล์) สหประชาชาติคาดว่าประชากร 25 คนอาศัยอยู่ในเขตเมืองในปีพ. ศ. 2548 และพื้นที่ในเขตเมืองมีอัตราการเติบโตอยู่ที่ 0.98 ต่อปี เมืองหลวงของการบริหาร Mbabane มีประชากร 70,000 คนในปีนั้น ความชุกของ HIVAIDS มีผลกระทบอย่างสำคัญต่อประชากรของสวาซิแลนด์โดยจำนวนเด็กติดเชื้อเอดส์เพิ่มขึ้นอย่างรวดเร็วในปีพ. ศ. 2549 องค์การสหประชาชาติคาดการณ์ว่า 33.7 คนในวัยผู้ใหญ่ที่มีอายุระหว่าง 15 x2013 49 อยู่ใน HIVAIDS ในปี 2544 โรคเอดส์ การระบาดทำให้อัตราการเสียชีวิตและอัตราการตายของทารกสูงกว่าและลดอายุขัยเฉลี่ย ในช่วงหลายปีที่ผ่านมามีการแพร่หลายของชาวแอฟริกันที่มีการศึกษาซึ่งหลายคนได้รับสัญชาติอังกฤษจากแอฟริกาใต้ไปยังสวาซิแลนด์ ตรงกันข้ามผู้ลี้ภัยหลายคนลี้ภัยได้ใช้วิธีการใช้สวาซิแลนด์เป็นหินขวางเพื่อเข้าถึงแอฟริกาใต้ในปี 2542 จำนวนแรงงานข้ามชาติทั้งหมดในปี 2543 เท่ากับ 42,000 คน ในขณะที่ปีพศ. 2547 สวาซิแลนด์มีผู้ลี้ภัยและผู้ลี้ภัย 1,010 รายส่วนใหญ่มาจากภูมิภาค Great Lakes ในปีพ. ศ. 2548 อัตราการย้ายถิ่นสุทธิอยู่ที่ประมาณศูนย์ต่อประชากร 1,000 คนเทียบกับ -10.8 ต่อ 1,000 ในปี 2533 รัฐบาลเห็นว่าระดับการย้ายถิ่นเป็นที่น่าพอใจ ประชากรชาวแอฟริกันในประเทศในสวาซิแลนด์มีจำนวนประชากรทั้งหมด 97 คนและประกอบด้วยผู้สมัครมากกว่า 70 คนซึ่งกลุ่ม Nkosi Dlamini ซึ่งเป็นตระกูลหลวงมีอำนาจเหนือกว่า ชาวยุโรปส่วนที่เหลืออีก 3 ภาษาอังกฤษและ Siswati ซึ่งเป็นภาษาพูดเกือบทั้งหมดของ Swazi เป็นภาษาราชการ ธุรกิจของรัฐบาลดำเนินการเป็นภาษาอังกฤษ ประชากรส่วนใหญ่เป็นคริสเตียนมีประชากรประมาณ 40 คนที่อยู่ในสังกัดของโบสถ์ไซออนนิสม์กล่าวถึงการผสมผสานของศาสนาคริสต์และการบูชาบรรพบุรุษของชนเผ่าพื้นเมือง ประมาณ 20 คนเป็นโรมันคาทอลิก นิกายคริสเตียนอื่น ๆ ได้แก่ Anglicans, Methodists และ Mormons (โบสถ์แห่งพระเยซูคริสต์แห่งสิทธิชนยุคสุดท้าย) ประมาณ 10 ของประชากรเป็นชาวมุสลิมและมีกลุ่มเล็ก ๆ ของชาวยิวและ Bahais มุสลิมและ Bahais มักตั้งอยู่ในเขตเมือง รัฐธรรมนูญไม่ได้รับประกันเสรีภาพทางศาสนาโดยเฉพาะ แต่สิทธิดังกล่าวได้รับการยอมรับโดยทั่วไปจากรัฐบาลและความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างกลุ่มศาสนาเป็นมิตร ประเทศมีถนน 3,800 กิโลเมตร (2,364 ไมล์) ในปี พ.ศ. 2545 ซึ่งปูทางลาดอย่างน้อย 1,064 กิโลเมตร (662 ไมล์) ทางหลวงวิ่งระหว่างพรมแดนทางใต้กับแอฟริกาใต้และพรมแดนด้านตะวันออกกับโมซัมบิก มีรถยนต์นั่งส่วนบุคคลจำนวน 30,000 คันและรถเชิงพาณิชย์ 9,000 คันที่ใช้ในปีพ. ศ. 2538 ขณะที่ในปีพ. ศ. 2547 มีรถไฟในประเทศ 301 กม. (187 ไมล์) ทั้งหมดนี้เป็นที่แคบและเชื่อมโยงเหมืองเหล็กที่ Ngwenya กับรถไฟโมซัมบิกและ ท่าเรือ Maputo ในประเทศโมซัมบิก ในปีพ. ศ. 2513 ได้มีการสร้างชายแดนภาคใต้ขึ้น 94 กม. (58 ไมล์) ที่ชายแดนแอฟริกาใต้ 115- กม. (71 ไมล์) กระตุ้นชายแดนแอฟริกาใต้เสร็จสมบูรณ์ในปี 2529 สนามบินหมายเลขประมาณ 18 2547 เพียงคนเดียวที่มีปูรันเวย์ (เหมือน 2548) สนามบิน Matsapa ใกล้ Manzini ให้บริการ x2014 ผ่าน Royal Swazi National Airways x2014 ไปยังแอฟริกาใต้โมซัมบิกแซมเบีย มาลาวี, ซิมบับเว, บอตสวานา ประเทศเคนย่า และแทนซาเนีย มีผู้โดยสารประมาณ 89,500 คนเดินทางไปเที่ยวบินระหว่างประเทศและเที่ยวบินภายในประเทศในปี 2546 (ปีล่าสุดที่มีข้อมูล) เช่นเดียวกับส่วนอื่น ๆ ของแอฟริกาใต้สวาซิแลนด์ถูกครอบครองโดยการล่าสัตว์และรวบรวมชนชาติที่เรียกว่า Bushmen ในศตวรรษที่ 16 ตามประเพณีผู้คนที่พูดภาษา Bantu ได้ก้าวหน้าไปทางตะวันตกเฉียงใต้จนถึงตอนนี้คือโมซัมบิก ในระหว่างการอพยพกลุ่มเหล่านี้พังทลายลงเพื่อสร้างกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ต่างๆทางตอนใต้ของแอฟริกา ในความเป็นจริงอย่างไรก็ตาม Swazi ดูเหมือนจะไม่แตกออกจากตัวหลักของ Bantu จนถึงกลางศตวรรษที่ 18 สวาซีกลายเป็นกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ที่แตกต่างกันในตอนต้นของศตวรรษที่ 19 และอยู่ในความขัดแย้งอย่างต่อเนื่องกับซูลูพวกเขาค่อยๆขยับไปทางเหนือและได้ติดต่อกับอังกฤษในยุค 1840 เป็นครั้งแรกเมื่อผู้ปกครองของพวกเขา Mswati II นำมาใช้กับ อังกฤษเพื่อขอความช่วยเหลือจากซูลู อังกฤษประสบความสำเร็จในการปรับปรุงความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างสองกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ คราวนี้ชาวยุโรปคนแรกที่เดินทางมาที่สวาซิแลนด์เพื่อชำระบัญชี ความเป็นอิสระของประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ได้รับการรับรองจากรัฐบาลอังกฤษและทรานสวาลล์ในปีพ. ศ. 2424 และ 2427 แต่เนื่องจากจำนวนที่มากเกินไปของสัมปทาน (รวมทั้งที่ดินทุ่งเลี้ยงสัตว์และสิทธิด้านแร่) ได้รับการยอมรับจากผู้ประกอบการในทวีปยุโรปโดย Mbandzeni (ราชา) ในช่วงทศวรรษที่ 1880s สหราชอาณาจักรจำเป็นต้องมีรูปแบบการควบคุม 2433 ในจัดตั้งรัฐบาลเฉพาะกาลแทนที่สวาซิแลนด์อังกฤษและ Transvaal ตั้งแต่ปีพ. ศ. 2437 ถึง 2442 รัฐบาล Transvaal ได้รับการคุ้มครองและบริหารงานของสวาซิแลนด์ หลังจากที่แอฟริกาใต้ (โบเออร์) สงครามของ 1899 x2013 1902 การปกครองของ Swaziland ถูกโอนไปยังผู้ว่าราชการอังกฤษของ Transvaal คำสั่งในการจัดตั้งสภาความสัมพันธ์ระหว่าง Swazi และสหราชอาณาจักรในปีค. ศ. 1903 โดยให้อำนาจขั้นพื้นฐานภายใต้การบริหารของอังกฤษเป็นเวลา 60 ปี ความรับผิดชอบต่ออิสรภาพของสวาซิแลนด์ถูกย้ายไปในปีพ. ศ. 2450 ให้แก่คณะกรรมาธิการระดับสูงของแอฟริกาใต้ การเลือกตั้งสภาที่ปรึกษายุโรปก่อตั้งขึ้นในปีพ. ศ. 2464 ตามบทบัญญัติของคำประกาศของรัฐบาลกลางปีพ. ศ. 2484 ได้รับการยอมรับถึงตำแหน่งของ ngwenyama (หัวหน้าที่ยิ่งใหญ่) ในฐานะผู้มีอำนาจในท้องถิ่น ในปีพ. ศ. 2506 ได้มีการเปิดการอภิปรายตามรัฐธรรมนูญที่มุ่งสู่อิสรภาพในกรุงลอนดอน ในปีต่อไปการเลือกตั้งสภานิติบัญญัติถูกจัดขึ้นภายใต้รัฐธรรมนูญฉบับแรกของประเทศ หลังจากการเจรจารัฐธรรมนูญเพิ่มเติมในกรุงลอนดอนเมื่อปีพ. ศ. 2508 ประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ได้กลายเป็นประเทศเอกราชภายในเครือจักรภพเมื่อวันที่ 6 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2511 เมื่อวันที่ 12 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2516 พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว Sobwaha II ซึ่งเป็นประมุขแห่งสวาซีตั้งแต่ปีพศ. 2464 ประกาศว่ารัฐธรรมนูญเป็น ยกเลิกและว่าเขาได้สันนิษฐานว่าผู้บริหารระดับสูงฝ่ายนิติบัญญัติและอำนาจตุลาการ ในปีพ. ศ. 2522 ได้มีการเลือกตั้งรัฐสภาใหม่โดยได้รับการแต่งตั้งเป็นส่วนหนึ่งจากการเลือกตั้งโดยอ้อม หลังจาก Sobhuza เสียชีวิตในปีพศ. 2525 การต่อสู้ด้านพลังงานเป็นเวลานาน ตอนแรกภรรยาอาวุโสของเขาพระราชินีแม่ Dzeliwe กลายเป็นประมุขแห่งรัฐและผู้สำเร็จราชการแผ่นดิน สมาชิกของ Liqoqo กษัตริย์ที่ปรึกษาสภาคว้าอำนาจที่มีประสิทธิภาพและได้รับการแต่งตั้งเป็นราชินีผู้สำเร็จราชการแผ่นดินในเดือนสิงหาคม 2526 (Ntombi หนึ่งในภรรยาคนอื่น Sobhuzas) ในเวลานั้นมีการประกาศว่า Makhosetive ลูกชายวัย 15 ปีของ Ntombi และหนึ่งในบุตรของ Sobhuzas 67 คนจะขึ้นครองบัลลังก์เมื่อถึงวัยผู้ใหญ่ เขาได้รับการสวมมงกุฎกษัตริย์ Mswati III เมื่อวันที่ 25 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2529 แผนการดังกล่าวยังคงดำเนินต่อไปจนกระทั่งกษัตริย์องค์ใหม่ได้รับการอนุมัติการลดสถานะของ Liqoqo กลับสู่สถานะการให้คำปรึกษา เขาได้ปกครองโดยนายกรัฐมนตรีและคณะรัฐมนตรี ในปีพ. ศ. 2525 แอฟริกาใต้และสวาซิแลนด์ได้ลงนามในข้อตกลงด้านความมั่นคง ภายใต้แรงกดดันจากแอฟริกาใต้สวาซิแลนด์ถูกจับกุมและเนรเทศสมาชิกสภาแห่งชาติแอฟริกันซึ่งเป็นกลุ่มชาตินิยมสีดำชั้นนำในแอฟริกาใต้ ในช่วงเวลาที่แตกต่างกันในช่วงปลายปี 2528 และ 2529 กลุ่มหน่วยคอมมานโดในแอฟริกาใต้ได้ดำเนินการบุกเข้าไปในสวาซิแลนด์ฆ่าสมาชิกและผู้สนับสนุน ANC จำนวนมาก ในเดือนพฤศจิกายนปี 1987 ได้มีการเลือกตั้งรัฐสภาชุดใหม่และมีการแต่งตั้งคณะรัฐมนตรีชุดใหม่ Obed Dlamini เป็นนายกรัฐมนตรีตั้งแต่ปีพ. ศ. 2532 ถึง พ.ศ. 2536 ในเดือนกันยายนและตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2536 ได้รับการเลือกตั้งเป็นที่นิยมสำหรับรัฐสภาและมีนายกรัฐมนตรีคนใหม่เจ้าชายมูบิตินิเข้าดำรงตำแหน่งแทนดัมมินีผู้แพ้ในรอบที่สองของการลงคะแนน Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini ได้รับแต่งตั้งให้เป็นนายกเมื่อเดือนกรกฎาคม พ.ศ. 2539 สหพันธ์แรงงานแห่งสหภาพโซเวียตและสมาคมข้าราชการแห่งชาติได้จัดให้มีการนัดหยุดงานเพื่อกดดันรัฐบาลให้มีการควบคุมประชาธิปไตยมากขึ้นโดยชาวสวาซิแลนด์ การนัดหยุดงานทำให้รัฐบาลห้ามไม่ให้สหภาพแรงงานในปีพ. ศ. 2538 หลังจากยกเลิกการห้ามประเทศดังกล่าวได้ถูกยกเลิกไปแล้ว แต่ประเทศได้หยุดชะงักอีกครั้งในปี 2539 โดยการนัดหยุดงานทั่วไปซึ่งได้รับการสนับสนุนจาก SFTU ซึ่งส่งผลให้ผู้นำสามคนถูกคุมขังและการก่อตัวของคณะกรรมการพิจารณารัฐธรรมนูญ เรียกเก็บเงินกับงานของการชักชวนมุมมองจากประเทศสวาซิแลนด์เป็นประเภทของรัฐธรรมนูญที่ต้องการ คณะกรรมาธิการจะต้องพบกับทุกเขตเลือกตั้งของประเทศและส่งรายงานไปยังเจ้าหน้าที่ของรัฐ ประวัติความเป็นมาของสวาซิแลนด์ในช่วงต้นทศวรรษ 2000 ถูกครอบงำโดยการโต้เถียงเรื่องการร่างรัฐธรรมนูญฉบับใหม่ ในเดือนกรกฎาคม 2548 หลังจากมีการปล่อยร่างร่างรัฐธรรมนูญหลายฉบับในเดือนพฤษภาคม 2003 และพฤศจิกายน 2004 x2014 ในเดือนกรกฎาคมปีพ. ศ. 2514 รัฐสภาได้ผ่านรัฐธรรมนูญของประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ กษัตริย์ลงนามเมื่อวันที่ 26 กรกฎาคม พ.ศ. 2548 และรัฐธรรมนูญฉบับใหม่มีผลใช้บังคับเมื่อเดือนมกราคม พ.ศ. 2549 อย่างไรก็ตามรัฐธรรมนูญไม่ได้เปิดพื้นที่ทางการเมืองให้กับพรรคการเมืองในขณะที่องค์กรภาคประชาสังคมและองค์กรสิทธิมนุษยชนในสวาซิแลนด์และที่อื่น ๆ คาดว่าจะมีขึ้น รัฐธรรมนูญฉบับใหม่ได้เข้ารหัสอำนาจปกครองของกษัตริย์ไว้ในกฎหมายอาญาของประเทศซึ่งเป็นการขัดขวางการห้ามพรรคการเมืองและการอนุญาตให้มีการระงับข้อบัญญัติด้านสิทธิมนุษยชนโดยกษัตริย์หากเห็นว่าขัดแย้งกับผลประโยชน์สาธารณะที่ไม่ได้กำหนดไว้ องค์กรทางการเมืองสังคมและองค์กรสิทธิมนุษยชนและประชาคมระหว่างประเทศต่างเป็นเอกฉันท์ในการวิพากษ์วิจารณ์กระบวนการนี้ซึ่งส่งผลให้เกิดเอกสารฉบับใหม่โดยเรียกว่าพระราชวังควบคุมไม่โปร่งใสไม่มีการให้คำปรึกษาและไม่เป็นประชาธิปไตย รัฐธรรมนูญเขียนขึ้นโดยคณะกรรมาธิการสองนายนำโดยพี่ชายของกษัตริย์เจ้าชาย Mangaliso Dlamini และเจ้าชายเดวิดดัมมินีผู้ซึ่งเป็นรัฐมนตรีว่าการกระทรวงยุติธรรม นักวิจารณ์กล่าวหาว่าการประชุมปรึกษาหารือกันอย่างกว้างขวางกับผู้นำแบบดั้งเดิมที่เรียกโดยกษัตริย์ Nswati III คือการตกแต่งหน้าต่าง พวกเขายังกล่าวหาว่าพระมหากษัตริย์ตัดสินใจในนาทีสุดท้ายเพื่ออนุมัติช่องโหว่ของรัฐธรรมนูญแม้ว่ารัฐสภาที่เขาควบคุมการย้อนกลับการตัดสินใจก่อนหน้านี้ของเขาเพื่อกำหนดรัฐธรรมนูญเป็นกฎหมายถูกออกแบบมาเพื่อปกปิดกระบวนการที่ไม่ถูกต้องและเพื่อให้ได้ความถูกต้องตามกฎหมายของประตูหลังสำหรับเอกสาร . อย่างไรก็ตามความพยายามหลายครั้งในการคัดค้านกระบวนการนี้ล้มเหลวตามกฎหมาย สำหรับส่วนของพวกเขานักลัทธิเหยียดผิวยืนยันว่าประชาธิปไตยเป็นกำลังแบ่งแยกในประเทศในขณะที่พระมหากษัตริย์เป็นกำลังรวมที่แข็งแกร่ง กษัตริย์ยืนยันว่ารัฐธรรมนูญได้รับการสนับสนุนอย่างเต็มที่จากชาวสทูซี เมื่อถึงปี 2006 สวาซิแลนด์ยอมรับว่าเป็นการต่อสู้กับวิกฤติด้านมนุษยธรรมอันเนื่องมาจากการระบาดของโรคเอดส์ อ้างอิงจากส UNAIDS สวาซิแลนด์มีอัตราการติดเชื้อเอชไอวีสูงที่สุดในโลกก่อนที่บอตสวานาใกล้เคียงซึ่งทำให้เกิดความก้าวหน้าในการต่อต้านโรคดังกล่าว เกือบ 4 ใน 10 ผู้ใหญ่ติดเชื้อไวรัสและอัตราการเพิ่มขึ้น มกราคม 2547 ในรัฐบาลเปิดเผยว่าเป็นหนึ่งในห้าของสวาซิแลนด์เป็นเด็กกำพร้าและเด็กอ่อนแอและประกาศโครงการจ่ายค่าเล่าเรียนประถมสำหรับเด็กกำพร้า 60,000 คนส่วนใหญ่เป็นเด็กของผู้ติดเชื้อ HIVAIDS เมื่อรวมกับภัยแล้งและการกันดารอาหารที่รุนแรงหลายปีแล้ว HIVAIDS ได้ทำลายเศรษฐกิจซึ่งพึ่งพายักษ์ใหญ่ในภูมิภาคของแอฟริกาใต้แล้ว การว่างงานเกือบ 34 และประชากร 70 คนอาศัยอยู่ต่ำกว่าเส้นความยากจนของสหประชาชาติที่มีค่าเงินดอลล่าร์ต่อวัน ท่ามกลางความท้าทายอันน่าสยดสยองดังกล่าวคิง Mswati III มักตกอยู่ภายใต้การวิพากษ์วิจารณ์ในระดับท้องถิ่นและระดับนานาชาติอย่างหนักสำหรับการใช้ชีวิตที่ฟุ่มเฟือยรวมถึงรถหรูและคฤหาสน์สำหรับภรรยาสิบคนและคู่หมั้นคู่ xE9 คน สวาซิแลนด์เป็นรัฐธรรมนูญที่มีพระมหากษัตริย์เป็นประมุขจนกระทั่ง King Sobhuza II ยกเลิกรัฐธรรมนูญในปีพ. ศ. 2516 และสันนิษฐานว่าอำนาจสัมบูรณ์ผ่านรัฐบัญญัติว่าด้วยเหตุฉุกเฉินซึ่งยังคงมีผลบังคับใช้ในปีพ. ศ. 2549 กษัตริย์ทรงปกครองประเทศในฐานะกษัตริย์ในสภาตามคำแนะนำ ของคณะรัฐมนตรีเดิมของเขาและสองคณะกรรมการ Swazi แบบดั้งเดิมซึ่งประกอบด้วยหัวหน้าและคนสำคัญอื่น ๆ ทั้งหมดอีกฝ่ายหนึ่งคือกษัตริย์พระราชินีแม่และ (ตามทฤษฎี) ผู้ใหญ่เพศชายทั้งหมด รัฐธรรมนูญได้มีการประกาศใช้ในปีพ. ศ. 2521 เมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2522 สภาผู้แทนราษฎรได้รับการแต่งตั้งขึ้นใหม่โดยสภาผู้แทนราษฎรประกอบด้วยสมาชิก 50 คนโดย 40 คนได้รับเลือกจากการเลือกตั้งโดยอ้อมและได้รับการแต่งตั้งจากมงกุฎ 10 ครั้งสมาชิกวุฒิสภา 20 คนมีสมาชิก 10 คนที่ได้รับการแต่งตั้งโดยทางอ้อม การเลือกตั้งและ 10 แต่งตั้งโดยมงกุฎ กฎหมายจะต้องได้รับการอนุมัติโดยมงกุฎ คณะรัฐมนตรีได้รับการแต่งตั้งจากนายกฯ ซึ่งได้รับการแต่งตั้งจากมงกุฎจากสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎร เพื่อตอบสนองการเคลื่อนไหวที่นิยมเรียกร้องให้มีการปฏิรูปกษัตริย์ Mswati III ได้รับการแต่งตั้งหลายคณะกรรมการเพื่อทบทวนระบบ tinkhundla (รัฐบาลท้องถิ่น) ในเดือนกรกฎาคม พ.ศ. 2535 คณะกรรมการพิจารณาทังสินธูนุก (เรียกว่า Vusela II) ได้รายงานไปยังกษัตริย์ รัฐบาลยอมรับข้อเสนอแนะหลัก x2014 เพิ่มศูนย์ tinkhundla อนุญาตให้มีตัวแทนโดยตรงในรัฐสภาและจัดให้มีการลงคะแนนลับ พรรคฝ่ายค้านบ่นว่า Vusela II ไม่ได้ปรึกษากับ Swazis ในวงกว้างและการปฏิรูปไม่ได้ระบุถึงประเด็นเรื่องความชอบธรรมของพรรคการเมือง พระมหากษัตริย์ตามคำแนะนำของ Vusela II ปฏิเสธการสร้างระบบหลายพรรคและเมื่อวันที่ 21 สิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2536 กระบวนการเลือกตั้งเริ่มต้นด้วยการเสนอชื่อผู้สมัคร เมื่อวันที่ 25 กันยายนเลือกตั้งเบื้องต้นได้คัดเลือกผู้สมัครสามคนในแต่ละเขต ในเดือนตุลาคมในการเลือกตั้งผู้มีสิทธิเลือกตั้งเลือกสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรจำนวน 55 คน กษัตริย์แต่งตั้งอีก 10 คน สมาชิกวุฒิสภา 30 คนได้รับการคัดเลือกโดยมีสมาชิก 10 คนได้รับเลือกจากสภาผู้แทนราษฎรและ 20 คนได้รับการแต่งตั้งจากกษัตริย์ หลังจากการเลื่อนตำแหน่งหลายครั้งการเลือกตั้งใหม่ถูกจัดขึ้นในปีพ. ศ. 2541 ท่ามกลางการรักษาความปลอดภัยของทหารและตำรวจอย่างแน่นหนาสวาซิสได้ลงคะแนนเลือกตั้งรัฐสภาเมื่อวันที่ 24 ตุลาคม 2541 มีผู้ลงคะแนนเสียงกว่า 85,000 คนซึ่งเป็นประชากรประมาณ 40 คน ในระหว่างการลงคะแนนการคุกคามโดยเจ้าหน้าที่ของกลุ่มต่อต้านการเลือกเช่นขบวนการประชาธิปไตยของสหประชาชาติ (Pudemo) และสภาเยาวชนแห่งสวาซิแลนด์ (Swayoco) ซึ่งกำลังสนับสนุนการคว่ำบาตรเนื่องจากเชื่อว่าการเลือกตั้งจะมีขึ้นอย่างรวดเร็ว นอกจากสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎรที่ได้รับเลือกตั้ง 53 คนแล้วกษัตริย์ยังเลือกอีก 10 คนสำหรับสภาผู้แทนราษฎรวุฒิสมาชิก 20 คนและรัฐมนตรี 10 คน พระมหากษัตริย์ทรงแต่งตั้งนายกรัฐมนตรี Sibusiso Dlamini ให้เป็นหัวหน้ารัฐบาลใหม่หลังจากการเลือกตั้งทั่วไปเมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2541 การเลือกตั้งสภาผู้แทนราษฎรถูกจัดขึ้นอีกครั้งในวันที่ 18 ตุลาคม 2546 การเลือกตั้งครั้งต่อไปคาดว่าตุลาคม 2551 เมื่อวันที่ 14 พฤศจิกายน 2546 Mswati แต่งตั้ง Absolom Themba Dlamini เป็นนายกรัฐมนตรี ที่ประชุมสมัชชาได้ 65 ที่นั่งโดยการเลือกตั้ง 2003 10 ได้รับการแต่งตั้งโดยกษัตริย์และ 55 ได้รับการเลือกตั้งด้วยคะแนนเสียงเป็นที่นิยม Mswati ลังเลที่จะแบ่งปันอำนาจ เขาได้รับการตัดสินโดยคำสั่งแม้ว่าศาลอุทธรณ์ได้วินิจฉัยว่าชอบตามกฎหมายของคำสั่งดังกล่าวและมักถูกวิพากษ์วิจารณ์ว่าเป็นเพราะการห้ามปรามฝ่ายตรงข้ามอย่างหนัก กษัตริย์ไม่สนใจกฎของกฎหมายที่เรียกใช้สิ่งที่เครือข่าย IRIN News เรียกว่าเป็นวิกฤตกฎหมาย ในเดือนพฤศจิกายน 2545 ในการประท้วงของรัฐบาลที่ปฏิเสธที่จะปฏิบัติตามคำตัดสินของศาลสวาซิแลนด์ในสองประเด็นสำคัญหกสมาชิกศาลลาออกจากตำแหน่งและปฏิเสธที่จะฟังคดีเป็นระยะเวลาสองปี ในรายงานการปล่อยตัวเมื่อเดือนกรกฎาคมปี 2547 องค์กรสิทธิมนุษยชนระหว่างประเทศแอมเนสตี้อินเตอร์เนชั่นแนลได้ท้าทายสวาซิแลนด์ให้ทำตามข้อผูกพันล่าสุดเกี่ยวกับมาตรฐานสิทธิมนุษยชนระหว่างประเทศโดยการกำหนดหลักเกณฑ์ทางกฎหมายใหม่และเผชิญหน้ากับการละเมิดทางแพ่งการเมืองเศรษฐกิจและสังคมอย่างเป็นระบบ สิทธิมนุษยชน นายกรัฐมนตรีแอ็ปโซมิดัมมินีกำลังเผชิญหน้ากับความกดดันระหว่างประเทศเพื่อประชาธิปไตยและยึดมั่นในหลักนิติรัฐนายกรัฐมนตรีได้เข้ามาดำเนินการต่อศาลซึ่งเริ่มดำเนินการฟ้องร้องต่อศาลในเดือนพฤศจิกายน 2547 รัฐควบคุมสื่ออย่างเข้มงวดและ จำกัด เสรีภาพในการแสดงออกอย่างเคร่งครัด ยกตัวอย่างเช่นพระราชวังได้ออกแถลงข่าวเกี่ยวกับภาพของรถ King Mswatis หลังจากได้รับความสนใจจากการซื้อรถยนต์ที่มีราคาแพงที่สุดในโลกที่น่าอับอายขายหน้ารายงานว่ามีมูลค่า 500,000 เหรียญ กลุ่มประชาธิปสิทธิในท้องถิ่นบางแห่งถูกบังคับให้มีการประท้วงทางการเมืองในประเทศเพื่อนบ้านหลังจากที่รัฐบาลห้ามการประชุมทางการเมืองและความรุนแรงที่ผู้ประท้วงได้รับการจัดการ ทุกฝ่ายถูกห้ามภายใต้รัฐธรรมนูญปี พ.ศ. 2521 แต่พรรคนี้ได้รับการต่อต้านจากขบวนการประชาธิปไตยของสหประชาชาติ (Pudemo) แนวร่วมปลดปล่อยสวาซิแลนด์สวาซิแลนด์ที่รัฐสภาเยาวชนพรรคคอมมิวนิสต์สวาซิแลนด์ที่ขบวนการแห่งชาติ Imbokodvo หรือ INM Ngwane National Liberatory สภาคองเกรส (NNLC), สวาซิแลนด์แห่งชาติหน้าและอนุสัญญาเพื่อประชาธิปไตยเต็มรูปแบบในสวาซิแลนด์ซึ่งดำเนินการอย่างเปิดเผย Pudemo ไปจนถึงการประกาศตัวเองในกุมภาพันธ์ 2535 และเรียกประชุมแห่งชาติของกลุ่มการเมืองและการลงประชามติรัฐธรรมนูญ ในเดือนมีนาคม พ.ศ. 2548 สวาซิลแลนส์ศาลสูงได้อนุมัติห้ามการรับรู้ทางกฎหมายของพรรคฝ่ายค้านพรรคการเมืองได้รับบาดเจ็บสาหัสจากสวาซิแลนด์สององค์กรทางการเมืองที่ใหญ่ที่สุดคือ PUDEMO และ NNLC ซึ่งสหภาพแรงงานพยายามที่จะท้าทายและขัดขวางร่างรัฐธรรมนูญฉบับใหม่ กลุ่มโปร - ประชาธิปไตยแย้งว่ากระบวนการรัฐธรรมนูญเป็นสิ่งผิดกฎหมายเมื่อเทียบกับคำตัดสินของศาลอุทธรณ์เมื่อปี พ.ศ. 2545 ว่ากษัตริย์ Mswati III ไม่มีพื้นฐานทางกฎหมายในการกำหนดกฎหมาย ในคำตัดสินของพวกเขาห้าผู้พิพากษาอุทธรณ์คำสั่งอื่นสถานการณ์ฉุกเฉิน 1973 ประกาศโดยพ่อ Mswatis กษัตริย์ Sobhuza ที่ให้อำนาจสัมบูรณ์กับระบอบกษัตริย์และห้ามการจัดระเบียบทางการเมืองการต่อต้านการปกครองของพระราช รัฐธรรมนูญฉบับปีพ. ศ. 2548 ที่รัฐสภาและรัฐสภาได้ให้สัตยาบันต่อการห้ามพรรคการเมือง อย่างไรก็ตามบางกลุ่มท้องถิ่นเห็นว่ารัฐบาลเพิ่งเผยแพร่แนวนโยบายสำหรับการสร้างการลงทะเบียนและการดำเนินงานขององค์กรพัฒนาเอกชนที่เปิดโอกาสให้มีกิจกรรมทางการเมืองเล็ก ๆ กลุ่มประชาธิปไตยได้สานต่อการทดสอบบทบัญญัติของรัฐธรรมนูญต่อศาล อย่างไรก็ตามหากรัฐบาลอ้างว่า (ปฏิเสธโดย PUDEMO) ที่เชื่อมโยงกับ PUDEMO กับการเกิดเพลิงไหม้ของสถานที่ต่างๆในเมือง Mbabane ในสัปดาห์แรกของเดือนตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2548 ได้รับการพิสูจน์แล้วว่าเป็นความจริงแล้วมันจะเป็นจุดเปลี่ยนทางสงครามและความรุนแรงสำหรับกลุ่มการเมืองต่อต้านการเมือง สวาซิแลนด์แบ่งออกเป็นสี่เขตคือ Hhohho Manzini, Shiselweni และ Lubombo ที่ใหญ่ที่สุด คณะกรรมาธิการเขตจะได้รับการแต่งตั้งจากรัฐบาลกลาง Mbabane, Manzini และอีกสองเมืองที่มีรัฐบาลในเขตเทศบาล โครงสร้างทางกฎหมายแบบขนานตามแบบแผนเป็นระบบแบบดั้งเดิมประกอบด้วยกษัตริย์และที่ปรึกษาแบบดั้งเดิมของเขาศาลแบบดั้งเดิมและ 55 เขต subregional tinkhundla ซึ่งมีการจัดกลุ่มหัวหน้าแบบดั้งเดิม ระบบตุลาการคู่ประกอบด้วยชุดของศาลขึ้นอยู่กับรูปแบบตะวันตกและกฎหมายตะวันตกและชุดของศาลแห่งชาติซึ่งเป็นไปตามกฎหมาย Swazi และกำหนดเอง อดีตประกอบด้วยศาลอุทธรณ์และศาลสูงรวมทั้งผู้พิพากษาศาลในแต่ละเขตทั้ง 4 แห่ง ศาลแบบดั้งเดิมจัดการกับความผิดเล็กน้อยและการละเมิดกฎหมายสวาสิแบบดั้งเดิมและแบบกำหนดเอง ประโยคในศาลแบบดั้งเดิมอาจมีการอุทธรณ์และทบทวนต่อศาลอุทธรณ์และศาลสูง พระมหากษัตริย์ทรงมีอำนาจแต่งตั้งศาลพิเศษโดยมีกติกาในการกบฏและคดีปลุกระดม ผู้พิพากษาของศาลอุทธรณ์เป็นชาวต่างชาติมักมาจากแอฟริกาใต้และทำหน้าที่เป็นระยะเวลาสองปีของสัญญาทดแทน ผู้พิพากษาท้องถิ่นให้บริการอย่างไม่มีกำหนดกับพฤติกรรมที่ดี ถึงแม้ว่าศาลควรจะเป็นอิสระจากการควบคุมและอิทธิพลของผู้บริหารหรือทางทหาร แต่ก็มีความสัมพันธ์ที่แย่ระหว่างฝ่ายตุลาการกับรัฐบาล เรื่องมาถึงพฤศจิกายน 2545 รัฐบาลปฏิเสธที่จะปฏิบัติตามคำวินิจฉัยของศาลฎีกาอุทธรณ์ในสองกรณีใหญ่หนึ่งประกาศ kKings บ่อยครั้งที่ผิดกฎหมายและอีกสั่งให้กลับไปที่บ้านของหัวหน้า Mliba Fakudze และ 200 ของเขา ผู้ลี้ภัยขับไล่และเนรเทศออกจากบ้านของพวกเขาในรัฐบาล Macetjeni โดยไม่ได้รับการสนับสนุนจากรัฐบาลในปีพ. ศ. 2543 หลังจากที่ท้าทายคำสั่งของพระราชวังที่ชัดเจนในการติดตั้งพี่ชายของกษัตริย์ Mswatis เจ้าชาย Maguga Dlamini ในฐานะหัวหน้าคนใหม่ของพวกเขา การประท้วงระหว่างประเทศทำให้เกิดการประท้วงในที่สาธารณะการลงโทษระหว่างประเทศทำให้เกิดการลาออกของทั้งคณะในเดือนพฤศจิกายน 2545 ความสัมพันธ์เริ่มเปลี่ยนไปเมื่อเดือนพฤศจิกายน 2547 เมื่อศาลอุทธรณ์ได้ดำเนินการพิจารณาคดีตามคำสัญญาของนายกรัฐมนตรีคนใหม่อย่างแอ็ปโซมิดัมมินีว่ารัฐบาลจะ เคารพในการตัดสินใจของศาล กองกำลังป้องกันประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ของ Umbutfo มีบุคลากรและหน้าที่น้อยกว่า 3,000 คนเป็นหน่วยลาดตระเวนชายแดนและกองกำลังความมั่นคงภายใน กองทหารคุ้มกันของราชวงศ์ถูกจัดตั้งขึ้นเมื่อปีพ. ศ. 2525 ค่าใช้จ่ายทางทหารในปีพ. ศ. 2544 x2013 จำนวน 20 ล้านบาทหรือคิดเป็นร้อยละ 4.8 ของ GDP สวาซิแลนด์เข้าร่วมสหประชาชาติเมื่อวันที่ 24 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2511 และมีส่วนร่วมในหน่วยงาน ECA และหน่วยงานเฉพาะด้านนอกภาครัฐเช่นองค์การอาหารและยาองค์การยูเนสโก UNIDO ธนาคารโลกและองค์การอนามัยโลก สวาซิแลนด์ยังเป็นสมาชิกของกลุ่ม ACP, ธนาคารเพื่อการพัฒนาแอฟริกา, เครือจักรภพแห่งชาติ, G-77, WTO, สหภาพศุลกากรใต้ของแอฟริกา (SACU), COMESA, ชุมชนพัฒนาแอฟริกาใต้ (SADC) และสหภาพแอฟริกา ประเทศนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของขบวนการ Nonaligned ด้วย ในความร่วมมือด้านสิ่งแวดล้อมสวาซิแลนด์เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของอนุสัญญาว่าด้วยความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพ CITES พิธีสาร Montr xE9 al, สนธิสัญญาห้ามทดลองใช้อาวุธนิวเคลียร์และอนุสัญญาสหประชาชาติว่าด้วยการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศและการทำให้แห้งแล้ง เศรษฐกิจของประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ยึดมั่นในหลักการตลาดเสรี ประโยชน์ของเศรษฐกิจสมัยใหม่มีความสุขเป็นหลักโดยการเติบโตของประชากรในเมือง ส่วนใหญ่สนับสนุนตัวเองผ่านการเกษตรยังชีพในชนบทที่อยู่อาศัย สัดส่วนของภาคอุตสาหกรรมที่ค่อนข้างหลากหลายสำหรับส่วนประกอบที่ใหญ่ที่สุดของระบบเศรษฐกิจอย่างเป็นทางการที่ 43 ของ GDP ในปี 2542 เนื่องจากขนาดของมันเล็กซัสจึงต้องพึ่งพาภาคการส่งออกมากประกอบกับ บริษัท ขนาดใหญ่ที่มีกรรมสิทธิ์ในต่างประเทศเป็นส่วนใหญ่ ล้อมรอบเกือบทั้งหมดโดยแอฟริกาใต้เศรษฐกิจ Swazilands อิทธิพลอย่างมากจากเพื่อนบ้านที่โดดเด่น เศรษฐกิจได้รับประโยชน์อย่างมากจากการลงทุนที่อาจเข้ามาในแอฟริกาใต้ในช่วงที่มีการคว่ำบาตรระหว่างประเทศในประเทศนั้น ๆ ในทางกลับกันเศรษฐกิจของ Swazi อาจประสบปัญหาในขณะที่แอฟริกาใต้กลับเนื้อกลับตัวดึงดูดการลงทุนที่กำลังเดินทางไปสวาซิแลนด์ ในปีพ. ศ. 2539 แอฟริกาใต้คิดเป็นประมาณ 96 ของการนำเข้าสวาซิลีน 60 แห่งการส่งออกและ 50 ประเทศในการลงทุนโดยตรง นอกจากนี้การส่งเงินจากพลเมืองของประเทศสวาซิแลนด์ที่ทำงานในเหมืองแร่ของแอฟริกาใต้เพิ่มขึ้นอย่างมากในรายได้ที่ได้รับในประเทศ การปรากฏตัวที่ครอบงำนี้ทำให้นักวิเคราะห์บางรายมองว่าเศรษฐกิจ Swazi เป็นประเทศเล็ก ๆ ซึ่งกำลังพัฒนาในแอฟริกาใต้มีขนาดใหญ่กว่ามาก เศรษฐกิจขยายตัวร้อยละ 3.6 ระหว่าง พ.ศ. 2531 ถึง พ.ศ. 2541 และ 2.6 ระหว่าง พ.ศ. 2544 และ 2548 การเติบโตของเศรษฐกิจแอฟริกาใต้คาดว่าจะส่งผลให้การส่งออกของ Swazi เพิ่มขึ้นและจะกระตุ้นการเติบโต ในปี 2545 การขาดดุลงบประมาณอยู่ที่ประมาณ 4.8 ของ GDP รัฐบาลได้ดำเนินการบางอย่างเพื่อปรับโครงสร้างภาครัฐและแปรรูปรัฐวิสาหกิจ ขณะที่ในปี 2546 รัฐบาลมีแผนที่จะสร้างสนามบินนานาชาติศูนย์การประชุมโรงแรมและสวนสนุกแห่งใหม่ เป็นสมาชิกของสวาซิแลนด์ในสหภาพศุลกากรใต้ของแอฟริกา (SACU) กับแอฟริกาใต้บอตสวานาเลโซโทและนามิเบีย ช่วยให้สามารถแลกเปลี่ยนสินค้าระหว่างประเทศได้โดยไม่ต้องสงสัยภายใต้ข้อกำหนดการควบคุมการนำเข้าของแอฟริกาใต้ สำนักงานข่าวกรองกลางสหรัฐ (ซีไอเอ) รายงานว่าในปีพ. ศ. 2548 ผลิตภัณฑ์มวลรวมภายในประเทศ (GDP) ของสวาซิลนัส (จีดีพี) ประมาณ 6.2 พันล้านดอลลาร์ CIA กำหนด GDP เป็นมูลค่าของสินค้าและบริการขั้นสุดท้ายทั้งหมดที่ผลิตภายในประเทศในปีที่กำหนดและคำนวณโดยอิงจากความเท่าเทียมกันของกำลังซื้อ (PPP) มากกว่ามูลค่าที่วัดได้โดยอิงตามอัตราแลกเปลี่ยนตามดอลลาร์ปัจจุบัน . GDP ต่อหัวเท่ากับประมาณ 5,300 อัตราการเติบโตประจำปีของ GDP อยู่ที่ประมาณ 1.8 อัตราเงินเฟ้อเฉลี่ยในปี 2548 อยู่ที่ 4. คาดว่าภาคการเกษตรคิดเป็น 15.1 ของ GDP อุตสาหกรรม 49.7 และภาคบริการ 35.3 ตามรายงานของธนาคารโลกในปีพ. ศ. 2546 เงินที่ส่งมาจากพลเมืองที่ทำงานในต่างประเทศมีจำนวน 62 ล้านคนหรือประมาณ 56 คนต่อหัวและคิดเป็นประมาณ 3.3 จีดีพี รายรับจากต่างประเทศมีจำนวนประมาณ 27 ล้านคนหรือประมาณ 24 รายต่อคนและคิดเป็นประมาณ 1.4 ของรายได้ประชาชาติขั้นต้น (GNI) ธนาคารโลกรายงานว่าในปีพ. ศ. 2546 การบริโภคของครัวเรือนในสวาซิแลนด์มีมูลค่าทั้งสิ้น 1.21 พันล้านหรือประมาณ 1,096 คนต่อหัวประชากรโดยอิงตาม GDP ที่ 1.9 พันล้านดอลลาร์ซึ่งวัดได้ในรูปดอลลาร์ปัจจุบันแทนที่จะเป็น PPP การบริโภคของครัวเรือนรวมถึงค่าใช้จ่ายของบุคคลครัวเรือนและองค์กรนอกภาครัฐเกี่ยวกับสินค้าและบริการโดยไม่รวมการซื้อที่อยู่อาศัย คาดว่าในช่วงปี 2533 ถึง 2546 การบริโภคในครัวเรือนมีอัตราการเติบโตเฉลี่ย 3.0 ปี ในปี 2544 มีการใช้อาหารประมาณ 25 ครัวเรือนบริโภคเชื้อเพลิง 9 เรื่องการดูแลสุขภาพและการศึกษา 13 เรื่อง มันเป็นที่คาดกันว่าในปี 2547 ประมาณ 66 ของประชากรมีรายได้ต่ำกว่าเส้นความยากจน ในปี 2546 กำลังแรงงานของสวาซิแลนด์มีจำนวนทั้งสิ้น 155,700 คน ในปีพ. ศ. 2547 การว่างงานอยู่ที่ประมาณ 40 ปีไม่มีข้อมูลเกี่ยวกับรายละเอียดเกี่ยวกับอาชีพของแรงงานในประเทศ กฎหมายอนุญาตให้สหภาพแรงงานจัดระเบียบและต่อรองร่วมกัน ประมาณ 80 ของภาคเอกชนอย่างเป็นทางการถูกจัดขึ้นเมื่อปีพ. ศ. 2544 สหพันธ์สวิสเซอร์แลนด์เป็นองค์กรแรงงานรายใหญ่ นอกจากนี้ยังมีสหพันธ์นายจ้างรวมถึงกลุ่มแรงงานที่เป็นอิสระอีกกลุ่มหนึ่งซึ่งเป็นองค์กรสหพันธ์แรงงานของสวาซิแลนด์อย่างเป็นทางการ สิทธิในการตีถูก จำกัด อย่างมาก แต่สหภาพแรงงานยังคงมีส่วนร่วมในการนัดหยุดงาน อายุขั้นต่ำสุดของการจ้างงานคือ 15 ปีและเด็กมักไม่ได้รับการว่าจ้างในระบบเศรษฐกิจแบบเป็นทางการ Child labor is more common in the agricultural and informal economies. Swaziland has a legally mandated sliding scale of minimum wages depending on the type of work. The minimum monthly wage for a domestic servant was approximately 21 in 2001. For an unskilled worker it was 33 and for a skilled worker, 52. The government protects workers with health and safety regulations. The maximum workweek is set at 48 hours, with one day of rest. Swazi nation land, which comprises over 60 of the total land area, is held in trust by the crown for the Swazi people and supports about 70 of the population. Nearly half of the remaining land, which is freehold title, is owned by Europeans the rest is owned by government or parastatal bodies. Under the traditional land tenure system, farmers till small plots, averaging less than 3 hectares (7.4 acres), but have no title or right to sell this land. The average freehold title farm, by contrast, is about 800 hectares (2,000 acres), and over 60 of freehold title cropland is irrigated. In this modern sector, agriculture expanded considerably in the early 1970s, mainly because of improved irrigation, better strains, and widespread introduction and use of fertilizers. Sugar is the most important cash crop, and corn is the staple crop. Most of the sugar produced is exported to Western Europe and North America. Output in 2004 included sugarcane, 4.5 million tons, and corn, 70,000 tons. Much of the sugar is exported to the EU, in accordance with the Sugar Protocol of the Lom xE9 Convention increasing amounts, however, are sold and refined domestically. Production of grapefruit in 2004 was about 37,000 tons oranges, 36,000 tons and pineapple, 32,000 tons. Cotton fiber production in that year was 2,000 tons. Between 1970 and 1982, 17 Rural Development Areas were established to assist traditional farmers the program was planned to extend eventually to all Swazi nation land. The 199192 drought caused corn and cotton production to seriously decline as a result the government sought emergency food assistance. By 1999, crop production was 90 of what it had been during 1989 x2013 91. During 2002 x2013 04, crop production was 5.9 lower than during 1999 x2013 2001. Livestock raising, like agriculture, is divided into two sectors: a traditional system of grazing on communal lands for subsistence needs, and modern, commercial ranches on freehold title land. Livestock numbers recovered in 1991 from a previous drought-related selloff. In 2005, Swaziland had about 580,000 head of cattle, 274,000 goats, 27,000 sheep, 30,000 hogs, 14,000 equines, and 3.2 million chickens. The country produced 12,500 tons of beef in 2005. However, the meat processing industry has been unstable since 1988. By 1982, several commercial fish farms had been established and some Rural Development Areas had fish ponds. Annual production was estimated at 70 tons in 2003. Swazilands forests (pine and eucalyptus) are among the worlds largest planted forests, covering 161,000 hectares (398,000 acres), or about 9 of the land area. The total forest area in 2000 was 522,000 hectares (1,290,000 acres), or 30 of the land area. Roundwood output totaled 890,000 cu m (31.4 million cu ft) in 2004, about 70 coniferous. Sawn wood production was 102,000 cu m (3.6 million cu ft). Of Swazilands planted forests, half supply the Usutu pulp mill, a large export earner producing unbleached wood pulp. About 3 of Swazilands forests are in protected nature reserves and game sanctuaries. The historic mineral sector of Swaziland has essentially collapsed. The kingdom contained the worlds oldest known mine site, the Lion Cavern, at the Ngwenya iron mine, on Bomvu Ridge, northwest of Mbabane. Carbon-14 dating estimated that mining of hematite (libomvu) and specularite ochres, for cosmetic and ritual uses, took place at the site from 43,000 x2013 41,000 bc until at least 23,000 bc the mine was closed in 1977. Minings role in Swazilands economy has been declining in recent years, and as of 2004, accounted for only a minor factor in its overall economy. Asbestos mining ceased in 2000, diamond mining ceased in 1996, and mining of the once-major export of iron ore stopped in the late 1970s (it reached 2.24 million tons in 1975). In 2004, Swaziland produced an estimated 300,000 cu m of quarry stone products, and also produced brick clay, anthracite coal. pyrophyllite, and sand and gravel. Small-scale, unreported gold mining has taken place. The mining of chrysolite fiber asbestos, once the dominant source of mining revenue, employing 1,000 workers at Bulumbe, one of the worlds largest asbestos mines, ceased because of declining reserves, environmental concerns, and weak markets. In 2000, the last year of asbestos production, 12,690 metric tons was produced. An estimated 1,150 metric tons of ferrovanadium was produced in 2004, up from 1,011 metric tons in 2003. Although fewer than 1,000 Swazis were directly employed in the mining sector, 1,000 people processed timber from the countrys extensive pine populations for mines in South Africa, and 10,000 x2013 15,000 Swazis were employed in South African mines. Swazilands primary fossil fuel resource is coal. The country has no proven reserves of oil or natural gas, and thus must rely on imports to meet its petroleum and natural gas needs. As of 1 January 2005, Swaziland had no proven reserves of crude oil, or natural gas, nor any petroleum refining capacity. In 2004, the countrys imports and consumption of petroleum products each averaged 3,000 barrels per day. Coal is Swazilands only fossil fuel resource. As of 2003, these reserves came to 229 million short tons. Demand and production for coal that year each came to 410,000 short tons. As of 1 January 2003, Swazilands total installed electric generating capacity totaled 0.124 million kW, of which conventional thermal capacity accounted for 0.080 million kW and hydropower accounting for 0.044 million kW of capacity. Electric power output in 2002 totaled 0.395 billion kWh, of which 0.202 billion kWh came from conventional thermal sources and 0.193 from Hydroelectric sources. Demand for electric power in 2002 totaled 1.166 billion kWh. Manufacturing consists primarily of the following export-oriented industries: wood pulp production, drink processing, fruit canning (Swazican), and sugar processing. Manufacturing growth in the mid-1990s was mostly attributable to increased production of drink processing at Bromor Foods and the sugar-based production activities of the Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation and Cadbury Confectioneries. Swazilands three sugar mills have an annual production capacity of 500,000 tons. Usutu Pulp, Swazilands largest employer, is the leading wood pulp processing company, with an annual capacity to produce 220,000 tons of bleached kraft pulp. Sappi, a London-based company, manages the Usutu Pulp Company. Cement, agricultural machinery, electronic equipment, and refrigerator production are also important parts of Swazilands manufacturing sector. Textiles, footwear, gloves, office equipment, confectionery, furniture, glass, and bricks are also manufactured. Industry accounts for over 40 of GDP. Sanctions against South Africa in the late 1980s and internal unrest inspired interest in the relocation of South African-based industry, such as Coca-Cola, in Swaziland. Reexports of South African manufactures with Made in Swaziland labels also appeared at that time. The industrial sector growth of the 1980s slowed in the early 1990s as stability returned to South Africa and sanctions were eliminated. Textile manufacturing, which flourished when South African tariffs were high, began to wither when they were equalized. Creation of the Southern African Development Community further marginalized the previous industry benefits to operating in Swaziland. The privatization of state-owned industry in 2000 increased foreign interest in Swazilands industrial sector. There are no known oil or natural gas reserves in Swaziland. In 2005, the government announced plans to reduce the budget deficit, including a reduction in expenditure on personnel. However, the governments willingness to carry this out has been called into question by recent salary increases for the cabinet and parliamentarians. Inflation has risen, but is expected to decline in the short term as food prices come down. The University of Swaziland, founded originally as part of the University of Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland in 1964, has faculties of agriculture and science. The Swaziland College of Technology, founded originally in 1946 as a trade school, offers courses in various fields of engineering. The Geological Survey and Mines Department, founded in 1946 at Mbabane, conducts mining research, and three other institutes conduct agricultural research. In 2002, high technology exports were valued at 3 million, or 1 of the countrys manufactured exports. South Africas substantial presence in Swazilands domestic economy essentially means that South African business is the driving force in Swazilands domestic commerce. South African employers and investors dominate certain sectors of local trade. Recently, however, the government has been working on programs to encourage local ownership and operation of small to medium-sized establishments. A few franchises have been established. Bargaining is an accepted practice in many Swazi business deals. The most developed distribution routes are those connecting to South Africa. Mbabane and Manzini are the principal commercial centers. Manufactured articles are generally available in all urban centers and are marketed mostly by South Africans. Business hours are from 8:15 or 8:30 am to 1 pm and from 2 to 5 pm, Monday x2013 Friday, and from 8:15 or 8:30 am to 1 pm, Saturday. Banks are open weekdays from 8:30 am to 1 pm and Saturdays from 8:30 to 11 am. Swazilands exports have traditionally equaled a significant portion of GDP. As a result, the countrys entire economy tends to mirror world commodity prices, and especially the state of the South African economy. The value of exports has risen steadily during the 1990s while the value of imports rose until 1997, when purchases suddenly dropped by 27. This was probably due to the creation of the South African free trade area. Principal exports in 2003 included sugar, soft drink concentrates (a large US investment), wood pulp and lumber, cotton yarn, and fruit. Principal imports were motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, food, petroleum products, and chemicals. Almost 96 of imports either originate in or transit through South Africa, and direct sales to and transshipments through South Africa account for about 72 of Swazilands exports. About 12 of exports go to the European Union . A decline in long-term capital inflows, increasing government deficits, and a drop in donor assistance plagued Swaziland with a current account deficit for much of the 1990s. The goods and services account has been negative since the 1980s. Payments made by the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) to Swaziland, along with donor assistance, have offset this deficit, but these sources of revenue are threatened. Increased government deficits have also weakened the position of the current account. The Economist Intelligence Unit reported that in 2005 the purchasing power parity of Swazilands exports was 2.007 billion while imports totaled 2.096 billion resulting in a trade deficit of 89 million. The Central Bank of Swaziland is the nations central bank. Swaziland has been experiencing excess liquidity for some time. The nations commercial banks were Standard Bank, First National and the Nedbank as of 1998. The Swaziland Development and Savings Bank was undergoing reconstruction in that year after a 1995 bankruptcy. The Swaziland Building Society provided mortgages for housing. The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand deposits x2014 an aggregate commonly known as M1 x2014 were equal to 62.2 million. In that same year, M2 x2014 an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual funds x2014 was 189.7 million. The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 5.06. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 9.5. The Swaziland Stock Market was established in 1990, and has only five company listings. The Swaziland Royal Insurance Corp. 41 state owned, began operating in 1974. It is majority-owned by South African insurance and reinsurance companies. The Swaziland National Provident Fund is a mandatory savings institution for employees. In the past, the government maintained a prudent fiscal policy by avoiding large deficits and restricting public sector growth. From 1987 to 1991, large budgetary surpluses were registered, and the government began making repayments on the external debt as a net creditor to the bank. Budgetary deficits during the 1990 x2013 2000s reflected extravagant government spending on the monarchy and his family. The civil service was overstaffed as well, prompting a reduction of 5,000 employees in 2000. The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Swazilands central government took in revenues of approximately 805.6 million and had expenditures of 957.1 million. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -151.5 million. Total external debt was 357 million. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 2000, the most recent year for which it had data, budgetary central government revenues were e2,817.1 million and expenditures were e2,899.7 million. The value of revenues in US dollars was us1,945 million and expenditures us2,002 million, based on a official exchange rate for 2000 of us1 e1.4481 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 30.6 defense, 7.6 public order and safety, 8.1 economic affairs, 21.1 housing and community amenities, 3.6 health, 8.0 recreation, culture, and religion, 0.6 education, 19.8 and social protection, 0.4. Swaziland has a progressive personal income tax system with rates ranging from 0 x2013 30. There are no local taxes. As of the year ending 30 June 2005, the corporate income tax was levied at a rate of 30. There are no capital gains tax, tax on dividends from companies paid to residents, or estate taxes. Swaziland has double taxation treaties with several countries including South Africa. The standard rate for the sales tax was increased from 12 to 14 in 2003, with higher rates for items like liquor (25) and tobacco. Exempted from sales tax are fresh foodstuffs, drugs, medicines, furniture and building supplies. Swaziland belongs to the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) with South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana, and Namibia. South Africa levies and collects most of the customs, sales, and excise duties for the five member states, paying a share of the revenues to the other four. Local import duties are applied to wines, spirits, and beer. Swaziland also signed a double taxation agreement with the United States in 2000. Cognizant of its subordinate relationship to South Africa, Swaziland has fostered an investment climate agreeable to foreign businesses. More than half of all enterprises are foreign owned or joint ventures. South African investment has consistently accounted for around 45 of FDI. It is surmised that British entities inject the largest portion of the remaining 55, followed by Taiwan. The United States, Denmark. the Netherlands. and Germany are also present. Foreign investors pay a reduced 10 corporate tax and are exempted from withholding tax on dividends for the first 10 years. In 1997, Swaziland experienced divestment of foreign direct investment (FDI) amounting to -15.1 million, but in 1998 annual FDI inflow rose to 151 million. Inflow was 100 million in 1999, Revenue and Grants ( x2026 ) data not available or not significant. but there was a reverse flow of -18.5 million in 2000. FDI inflow in 2001 was 68 million, in 2002 was 48.7 million, and in 2003 was 60.8 million. FDI grew by 10.4 in 2003 and much of this growth was through reinvested earnings. There is no policy of encouraging Swazis or Swazi business to invest abroad generally, but a handful of Swazi businesses invest abroad, primarily in South Africa. The growth that was experienced in past years left unaffected the 60 of Swazis who live on small family farms. While manufacturing employment has risen, about half of Swazis are unemployed and actively seeking work. It is hoped that the existence of a multiracial government will prove beneficial to ongoing Swaziland-South African economic development. Economic activity weakened in the early 2000s, however, in part due to drought and closures by foreign firms. Food shortages and the spread of HIVAIDS have exacerbated the dire conditions of high unemployment, income inequality, and poverty. A National Emergency Response Committee (NERCHA) was established in 2001 to combat HIVAIDS. Social services have developed slowly. A system of pensions exists for formally employed persons. Old-age, disability, and survivorship is covered. The program is funded by 5 contribution by both employees and employers. Retirement is allowed between ages 45 and 50 and pensions may be paid as a one-time lump sum or divided into installments. Private work injury insurance is mandatory for all employers. Women do not have full legal equality with men, and a married woman is virtually a legal minor. Women may not open a bank account, buy land, or leave the country without her husbands permission. In addition, women do not automatically transmit citizenship to their children, and cannot transfer property to them either. Domestic violence is commonplace, and rape is viewed as a minor offense by most men. Women are inhibited from reported violence, and the court system is unsympathetic. Child abuse is also a widespread social problem despite legislation protecting the rights of children. There are continued reports of the use of excessive force by police, and torture during interrogation. The law does not provide for freedom of speech and of the press, and the government restricts these activities. However, human rights organizations are permitted to operate. Major health problems include bilharzia, typhoid, tapeworm, gastroenteritis, malaria, kwashiorkor, and pellagra. In 2004, there were an estimated 18 physicians, 2 dentists, 4 pharmacists, and 320 nurses per 100,000 people. Traditional healers are still consulted by over 80 of the population. Only about 43 of the population has access to safe water, and 36 has adequate sanitation. About 56 of the population had access to health care services. About 27 of married women used contraceptives. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 39.6 and 23.2 per 1,000 people. In 2005, average life expectancy was 33.22 years, the lowest in the world. The infant mortality rate was 72.92 per 1,000 live births. The immunization rates for children under one year of age were as follows: diphtheria and pertussis, 96 polio, 96 measles, 94 tuberculosis, 100 and tetanus, 75. The HIVAIDS prevalence was 38.80 per 100 adults in 2003, the highest rate in the world. As of 2004, there were approximately 220,000 people living with HIVAIDS in the country. There were an estimated 17,000 deaths from AIDS in 2003. The search for jobs in urban settings has caused a housing shortage in these areas. Several squatter settlements have developed, accounting for as much as half of annual shelter production in cities. It has been estimated that about 60 of the urban population resides in temporary shelters, and that number grows as more and more households are unable to afford the high cost of home ownership. In response, the government has been working with international programs, such as the World Bank, to create and improve urban housing. In 2001, the Swaziland National Housing Board provided for over 1,000 rental units and 500 units for ownership to low- and middle-income families. The majority of primary and secondary schools are run by missions with grants from the government. Children go through seven years of primary and five years of secondary schooling (in three and two-year cycles). Schooling is not compulsory, and nominal fees are charged to parents. The academic year runs from August to May. Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 75 of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 32 of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 75 of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 31:1 in 2003 the ratio for secondary school was about 16:1. Higher education is provided by the University of Swaziland and the Swaziland College of Technology. In 2003, it was estimated that about 5 of the tertiary age population were enrolled in tertiary education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 79.2, with 80.4 for men and 78.1 for women. As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 7.1 of GDP. The Swaziland National Library Service was founded in 1971 with 250,000 volumes, it has 12 branches throughout the country and operates school libraries at secondary levels. There is also a mobile library service. The University of Swaziland in Kwaluseni has 180,000 volumes. The Swaziland Library Association was founded in 1984. The Swaziland National Museum in Lobamba, founded in 1972, contains collections primarily of ethnographic material and cultural objects of South Africa Bantu groups. In 2003, there were an estimated 44 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people about 15,600 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 84 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people. The government-operated Swaziland Broadcasting Service broadcasts radio programs in English and Siswati and television programs in English. As of 2004, there were two government-owned radio stations and one independent (religious) radio station. There was one privately owned television station, however, the latter was owned by a relative of the former king. The government also has a television station. In 2003, there were an estimated 162 radios and 34 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 28.7 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 26 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were two secure Internet servers in the country in 2004. There are two major daily English language newspapers, the Times of Swaziland and the Swaziland Observer, with circulations in 2002 of 18,000 and 11,000, respectively. Freedom of speech and of the press are said to be limited, especially on political matters. There are more than 123 cooperative societies, including the Swaziland Central Cooperatives Union. The national chamber of commerce and industry is in Mbabane. The National Consumers of Swaziland was established in 1994. There are active professional associations, such as the Swaziland Nurses Association and Swaziland National Association of Teachers. Educational organizations include the Swaziland Educational Research Association and Fundza, which works to establish school libraries throughout the country. National youth organizations include the Swaziland Boy Scouts Association, Swaziland Workcamp Association, and the Swaziland Youth Forum. There are several sports associations in the country promoting amateur competition for athletes of all ages in a variety of pastimes many of these groups are affiliated with international counterparts, as well as with the Swaziland Olympic and Commonwealth Games Association. Volunteer service organizations, such as the Lions Clubs International, are also present. Social action and development groups include the Human Rights Association of Swaziland and Emanti Esive (Water for Community Development), a health and wellness organization. There are national chapters of the Red Cross Society, UNICEF, and Caritas. Swaziland offers the tourist a magnificent variety of scenery and casinos at Mbabane, Nhlangano, and Piggs Peak. The tea estates near the Mdzimba Mountains are also an attraction. Popular sports are tennis, squash, hiking, fishing, white-water rafting, lawn bowls (bowling on a green), and golf. If traveling from an infected area vaccination against yellow fever is required. Precautions against cholera, typhoid, polio, and malaria are recommended. Passports and travel documents are required of all visitors as well as visas from more than 145 countries including China and Russia . In 2003, there were 218,813 visitors who arrived in Swaziland. Hotel rooms numbered 1,339 with 2,436 beds and a 33 occupancy rate. Over 50 of the visitors came from African nations. According to 2005 US Department of State estimates, the daily cost of staying in Mbabane was 247. Sobhuza II (1899 x2013 1982) was king, or ngwenyama, of the Swazi nation from 1921 until his death. Mswati III (b.1968) became king in 1986. Swaziland has no territories or colonies. Booth, Alan R. Historical Dictionary of Swaziland . Lanham, Md. Scarecrow Press, 2000. Bowen, Paul N. A Longing for Land. Tradition and Change in a Swazi Agricultural Community . Brookfield, Vt. Avebury, 1993. Gillis, D. Hugh. The Kingdom of Swaziland: Studies in Political History . Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1999. Harris, Betty J. The Political Economy of the Southern African Periphery: Cottage Industries, Factories, and Female Wage Labour in Swaziland Compared . New York: St. Martins, 1993. Hope, Kempe R. AIDS and Development in Africa: A Social Science Perspective . New York: Haworth Press, 1999. McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View . Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 2002. Penn, Helen. Unequal Childhoods: Childrens Lives in Developing Countries . New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2005. Zeilig, Leo and David Seddon. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Africa . Philadelphia: RoutledgeTaylor and Francis, 2005. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Other City: Manzini EDITORS NOTE This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report for Swaziland. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of States web site at travel.state.gov for the most recent information available on travel to this country. INTRODUCTION SWAZILAND . geographically one of Africas most diverse smaller states, lies landlocked in the southeast corner of the continent between Mozambique and South Africa. A country of rolling hills and valleys, sound fiscal management, and financial cooperation with its largest neighbor, South Africa, Swazilands standard of living is better than that of most African countries. Swaziland also maintains the simplicity and mysterious traditions that tend to keep it relatively insulated from the turmoil that afflicts the other nations of southern Africa. Many Swazis continue to wear traditional dress rather than Western fashions. Mbabane, Swazilands capital city, is a clean and orderly town where an outdoor African market and a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant coexist. Sobhuza II, known to his people as the Lion of the Swazis, the Inexplicable, the Great Mountain, the Bull, the Son of the She-Elephant, and the Knight of the British Empire. was the worlds longest reigning monarch, ruling Swaziland from 1921 until his death on August 21, 1982. For the next four years, Queen Ntombi Tfwala, one of Sobhuzas many wives, acted as regent until the coronation of Crown Prince Makhosetive. The coronation, held April 25, 1986, took place three years earlier than anticipated in order to end an ongoing power struggle between vying royalist factions. Eighteen-year-old King Mswati III, the Ngwenyama . or lion of his people, told his countrymen at his colorful coronation ceremony: My experience is short, but I have behind me the sacred trust and strength of the people. MAJOR CITY Mbabane was chosen by the former British administrators as the capital of the High Commission Territory because it was free of the malaria prevalent at lower altitudes in the country. Today, it bustles with commercial and official activity resulting from its status as the seat of government of independent Swaziland. Pleasant, well-shaped residential areas spread over the hills surrounding the growing business section. Downtown stores and a nearby shopping mall with a U.S.-style supermarket provide most of the goods and services available in a small-to medium-sized American town. Mbabanes population is approximately 67,000. Mbabane has many social and climatic characteristics of a small town in Oregon or Washington. The combination of its 26 xB0 south latitude (longitude 31 xB0 east) and 3,800-foot altitude gives Mbabane cool and dry winters and mild summers. Most of the rainfall comes in long, misty drizzles between October and March. Heavy rains in that period are frequently accompanied by hail and violent electrical storms. Evenings tend to be cool, even in summer, and frost can occur in the winter months. The capitals previous English colonial atmosphere has dissipated with the localization of the civil service. Although a substantial European population remains, it is now composed mostly of South Africans, English, and Portuguese engaged in commercial activity. Mbabanes Swazi population is made up of government officials and also rural Swazis who have to come to the capital looking for jobs. Languages most heard in the capital are siSwati, used by Swazis among themselves and for most local broadcasting English, spoken by expatriates and in government offices and Portuguese, used by members of the Portuguese business community. Taxis are available at all hotels in Mbabane the usual tip is 10 percent. There are also car rental services in Mbabane an international drivers license is required and driving is on the left. Allister Miller Street, one of the main thoroughfares in Mbabane, has modern shops, boutiques, hotels, commercial banks, and the offices of several diplomatic missions. Nearly all of Swazilands government ministries and departments are located in and around the Mbabane area. On the south side of the city is the Industrial Site, with several light industries and commercial concerns. The Small Enterprises Development Companys (SEDCO) complex is located here. There is a friendly little shopping center offering handmade clothes in colorful African fabrics, finely crocheted shawls, pottery, tapestries, artificial flowers made from local grasses, and a wide range of other items. Visitors are drawn to the Swazi Plaza, now the established commercial center of Mbabane. The plaza provides nearly every type of shopping and service facility, all on one level. Access from the adjacent Mbabane town center is gained by merely walking across the bridge that spans the Mbabane River. Sifundzani School is a primary school in the city of Mbabane that provides adequate facilities for American children, and as a Swazi Government school, it follows a British curriculum. Founded in 1981, the school is a coeducational institution and receives support from the Office of Overseas Schools. The school is situated in a hillside area and consists of six buildings, 14 classrooms, an auditorium, playing field, and swimming pool. Sifundzani has grades one through seven and enrolls children the year they turn six. The curriculum at the school includes five years of French and siSwati. Extracurricular activities include drama, sports, and choral and instrumental music. Visits to game reserves, museums, houses of Parliament, industrial areas, and agricultural projects are part of the curriculum. The school day is from 7:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Simple, inexpensive uniforms of shirts and jeans for boys and pinafores for girls are required. The school year lasts from January to December. Further information can be obtained at: P.O. Box A286, Swazi Plazi, Mbabane, Swaziland. Waterford-Kamhlaba United World College of Southern Africa (P.O. Box 52, Mbabane), a private school set among the foothills overlooking the city, is considered one of the finest preparatory schools in southern Africa. Because it is usually full and often has a waiting list, parents contemplating enrolling their children in Waterford-Kamhlaba should communicate with the headmaster as many months ahead as possible. However, admission to Waterford-Kamhlaba on any level is by competitive entrance examination and by merit. The school was founded in 1963 with the aim of providing a high standard of secondary education in a multiracial environment. Originally a boys school, it is now coeducational. The school is comprised of 20 buildings, 21 classrooms, a 16,000-volume library, auditorium, four tennis courts, three playing fields, seven science labs, computer center, swimming pool, and infirmary. Waterford-Kamhlaba offers a seven-year British (approximate) secondary curriculum divided into a five-year section and a final two-year section. The first five-year program leads to the Cambridge External Board School Certificate (O level) which is almost equivalent to a U.S. high school diploma. At the end of the first five years, a student must reapply for the final two years, which will lead to the International Baccalaureate degree. Classes begin at 8 a.m. Monday through Friday and alternate Saturdays. They end at 3 p.m. Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, and at 1 p.m. on Wednesday and alternate Saturdays. Sports activities are scheduled two days a week and, on these days, students may remain as late as 4 or 5 p.m. Subjects offered include English language and literature, history, geography, mathematics, economics, chemistry, physics, biology, languages (Afrikaans. Spanish, French, ZulusiSwati), music, and art. The O level examinations are taken on six to nine subjects from the list. The International Baccalaureate examination is taken on a combination of six subjects and includes a theory of knowledge paper and an extended essay based on the students own research and reading under the guidance of one of the teachers. Extracurricular activities consist of sports (including swimming), art, chess, music, science clubs, camping and other outdoor activities, drama, gymnastics, dance, yearbook, and newspaper. Many parents and children living in the Mbabane area, including American families, share the facultys view that boarding provides the ideal educational and social experience. Boarders may join their families every Wednesday afternoon and weekends. Several nursery schools operate in Mbabane. Private tutoring in art, crafts, and sports is also available. In addition to its regular Swazi-oriented programs in English and siSwati, Sebenta National Institute (adult education) has evening courses in siSwati for foreigners. Recreation Swaziland has many good sports facilities. Group sports, usually conducted by clubs, are typically British: soccer, rugby, cricket, and bowls. Many Swazis are avid soccer players and fans, and semi-professional games are played weekends in Mbabane, or in the Somhlolo National Stadium in Lobamba. The country has several golf courses, including one at the Mbabane Club and the international-standard course at the Royal Swazi Hotel. Tennis is increasing in popularity. There are three municipal courts at Coronation Park in Mbabane, six courts at the Mbabane Club, an others at nearly every major center in the country. Horseback riding facilities are available at several hotels and nature reserves around the county as well as privately run stables. Stabling is available for privately owned horses. Most hotels have their own pools. Swazilands striking mountains and highveld attract outdoor enthusiasts. Camping, hiking, picnicking, and fishing are popular in the latter. Horses can be rented for outings. Several bushmen painting sites are within easy driving distance of Mbabane. The country now has five game parks: a small but growing one in the middleveld in the Malkerns valley (Mlilwane), and a larger, undeveloped protected area in the bushveld (Ehlane). The former has well-kept roads that bring the visitor within a few feet of a wide variety of game, many imported from other parts of Africa. These include antelope, rhino, zebra, giraffe, hippo, ostrich, and many birds. Elephants and rhinos are being reintroduced into Swaziland in the outlying reserves. The Swaziland Natural History and Mineral and Gem Societies often arrange lectures and tours to these areas. Indigenous fish, including bream, yellowfish, silver barbel, mud fish, and eels, are found in most rivers. Black bass have been successfully introduced into a number of dams. Streams in the Usutu Forest are stocked with trout but fishing in these waters is by permit only. Permits are available from the Usutu Forest Fishing Club. The Swaziland Automobile Club organizes many rallies during the year. The Swaziland Flying Club at Matsapha Airport has its own plane and gives flying lessons. An annual raft race is held on the Usutu River near Big Bend. Travel in neighboring South Africa is a favorite way of adding variety to Mbabanes small-town life. American tourist travel is not encouraged by Mozambique, which usually issues visas to Americans on official business only. Those in search of city lights can choose between the South African cities of Pretoria. Johannesburg. and Durban, all of which offer cinema, theater, music, and good restaurants and nightclubs. However, many facilities are closed on Sundays. Durban, on the Indian Ocean. has the additional attraction of beaches and a seaport atmosphere. Those looking for wider open spaces have a number of available routes. Two hours north of Swaziland is South Africas Kruger National Park, containing much of the game still found in southern Africa, including lion and elephant. The northern Natal areas have other smaller game parks, and also the famous Drakensberg mountains with snow-covered peaks where one can go climbing, trout fishing, and camping. Blyde River canyon, about three hours north of Mbabane, has beautiful hiking and climbing areas. Entertainment Mbabane is a town of self-generated entertainment. It can be dull for a person not active in sports or in social and cultural life. Nightly movies are shown, including recent releases, at the Cinelux Theater in Mbabane, and older films are shown at a cinema in Manzini. Classic and art films are shown several times a week in the 230-seat theater of the Mbabane Theatre Club, which also stages frequent dramatic productions. They also have a dinner theater featuring short plays and amateur folk nights. Touring vocal and instrumental artists appear on an average of once a month, under the auspices of the Swaziland Music Society. In addition to its nightclub entertainment, the Royal Swazi Sun Hotel has roulette tables, poker and blackjack games, and slot machines. On payment of a small fee, nonresidents have access to these diversions and to the hotels facilities for golf, tennis, bowls, swimming, and dancing, as well as to its spa compound. Several local color night-clubs are in Mbabane. Square dance evenings are organized in Mbabane, and Scottish dancing evenings are held in Manzini. Occasional horse events and gymkhanas are held at local stables. The Swaziland Art Society sponsors two exhibitions each year featuring the work or artists residing in Swaziland. A commercial art gallery, Indinglizi, in Mbabane, has regular exhibitions. Swaziland is a photographers delight with both natural scenery and colorful national dress. Film processing is available in Mbabane, but slides are sent to South Africa. The Swazis have two traditional dance festivals each year, the Umhlanga or Reed Dance (women) in late August or early September, and the Incwala (men) in late December or early January. Both are open to the public. Permits are normally required for taking still photographs at close quarters, and the use of movie cameras is discouraged. Visitors may get permission to photograph these ceremonies from the Government Information Service at B.P. 338, Mbabane. Although social entertaining in the Western sense is not a part of Swazi social life, occasional opportunities exist to visit Swazi homes, and Swazis usually accept dinner invitations. Small lunches, dinners, barbecues (called braais ), and similar get-togethers are held often. Many Swazis go to their homesteads on weekends, so most entertaining is done during the week. Swazi people are very friendly and helpful to visitors. OTHER CITY The largest city in Swaziland is MANZINI . located in the central part of the country about 25 miles southeast of Mbabane, with a population of 73,000. Most Swazi towns originally grew around trading stores, and Manzini, the industrial and agricultural center of the country, is a prime example. The town has modern shops, a maize mill, light engineering works, small factories, a rice drying plant, and is the seat of the Swaziland Trade Fair Exhibition Center. Dairy and beef cattle are also raised, and Swazilands main meat processing plant, creamery, cotton gin, and fruit canning factory are located in and around Manzini. Manzini was the capital of Swaziland before 1902. There are two hotels in Manzini. Their names and addresses are: The George, P.O. Box 51 and Highlands Inn, P.O. Box 12. Taxis are available for hire at the hotels. Cars may be rented at the Manzini airport, located five miles outside of town. COUNTRY PROFILE Geography and Climate Swaziland is an independent kingdom in southeastern Africa. Its 6,704 square miles (less than the area of New Jersey ) are all but surrounded by the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of the Republic of South Africa. Its eastern border on Mozambique is about 40 miles from the Indian Ocean. The greatest distance from north to south is less than 120 miles, and from east to west is less than 90 miles. Swaziland has four well-defined regions of roughly equal breadth, running from north to south: highveld, middleveld, lowveld (or bushveld), and the Lubombo Plateau. The mountainous highveld in the west (where Mbabane, the capital, is located) rises over 6,000 feet, with an average altitude of 4,000 feet. The middleveld averages 2,000 feet, the lowveld 700 feet, and the Lubombo Plateau about 1,800 feet. The highveld has a humid, near-temperate climate with 40 to 90 inches mean annual rainfall. Daytime weather is more variable in the highveld than in the other regions, with a foggy or overcast morning sometimes followed by a sunny afternoon, and vice versa. Temperatures for Mbabane, located in the highveld, range between a mean low of 51 xB0 F and a mean high of 72 xB0 F. Extremes of 17 xB0 F and 99 xB0 F have also been recorded. The middleveld and Lubombo Plateau are subtropical and drier, with 30 to 45 inches mean annual rainfall. Temperatures for Manzini, the countrys main industrial center and the city nearest the university campuses, range between a mean low of 57 xB0 F and a mean high of 78 xB0 F. Extremes of 32 xB0 F and 108 xB0 F also have been recorded. The lowveld is warmer and less humid than the middleveld, with 20 to 35 inches mean annual rainfall, usually during heavy summer storms. Temperatures for Big Bend, center of the sugarcane industry in eastern Swaziland, range between a mean low of 58 xB0 F and a mean high of 84 xB0 F. Extremes of 26 xB0 F and 108 xB0 F have been recorded. Population Swazilands resident population is estimated at 1.1 million. Thousands of Swazi nationals normally work outside the country, principally in the South African mines. Mbabane has a population of 67,000 (2002 estimate). Swazilands other major city is Manzini, which has a population of 73,000. The annual growth rate is about 1.8 percent. A small percentage of the Africans in southern Swaziland are Zulus most of the rest are Swazis. The European community of about 30,000 consists of English-, Afrikaans-, and Portuguese-speaking groups. Afrikaners are in both the northern and southern parts of the country, whereas the English and Portuguese are located largely in the north. Europeans engage mainly in agriculture, trading, construction, mining, and the professions. Most Swazis are engaged in agriculture and are strongly bound to tradition. Society is patriarchal, with the usual family homestead including a man, his wives, his unmarried children, and his married sons and their families. If his mother is living, she has a great deal of influence in the homestead. The Swazi farmer lives in a beehive hut, wears beaded neck ornaments and a brightly colored wraparound cloth overlaid with an animal skin, and has a diet consisting mainly of maize, greens, and milk. Although Swazis love meat, those living in homesteads have meat only on special occasions or when they have visitors. Even though many homesteads have cattle, they prefer to slaughter them mainly for celebrations. More than half of the Swazis belong to various Christian churches most of the rest practice a traditional religion based on ancestor-worship. The official languages of Swaziland are English and siSwati. One of Africas last ruling dynasties, the Swazis trace their history back 400 years. In the 19th century, as one of the weaker Bantu tribes of southern Africa, the Swazis were driven back by the powerful Zulus to the rocky, mountainous region that became Swaziland. Early Swazi rulers kept their land independent from the surging Zulus, Boers, and British with a combination of warfare and diplomacy, until the 1890s when the Boers took control. Following the British victory in the Boer War, Swaziland became a British High Commission Territory in 1903. It achieved independence on September 6, 1968, becoming the 28th independent member of the British Commonwealth. Government As a British colony, the British High Commissioners who ruled Swaziland foresaw the tiny African nation as one day being incorporated into South Africa. Independence was not contemplated until the 1960s, and at that time, the British envisioned the government to be a constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliament. But Sobhuza II, whose reign during the British protectorate was as a limited constitutional monarch with a largely ceremonial role, believed that his rule, with the advice of a tribal council, was better for the Swazis than any form of Western democracy. He formed his own political party x2014 Imbokodvo (Grinding Stone) x2014 and in the first parliamentary election held in 1967, won all 24 seats in Parliament with 80 percent of the vote. Full independence was achieved for Swaziland, with Sobhuza II in control, on September 6, 1968. The constitution in effect at the time of independence stated that legislative power was vested in a bicameral parliament, with a senate and a house of assembly. In April 1973, King Sobhuza repealed the constitution, suspended political activity, and took all executive, legislative, and judicial powers himself. Although there was no threat to Sobhuzas power, it appeared that he preferred to rule as Swazi King rather than as constitutional monarch, and to have governmental organization and procedures more compatible with Swazi tradition. In September 1973, the Royal Constitutional Commission was appointed to draw up a new constitution. In March 1977, the king abolished the parliamentary system and replaced it with traditional tribal communities x2014 tinkhundla . The other traditional council x2014 known as the Supreme Council of State until 1985 ( liqoqo ) x2014 is composed of 16 members of Swazi royalty and other notables appointed by the king, who advise him on all matters regulated by Swazi law and custom and connected with Swazi tradition and culture. A new constitution was declared on October 13, 1978, and is based on traditional tribal communities. It called for a bicameral Parliament, or Libandla . made up of a House of Assembly with 50 deputies and a Senate with 20 senators. An 80-member electoral college, made up of two people elected from each tinkhundla . in turn elect 40 deputies and 10 senators. The king then chooses an additional 10 members for each house. The functions of the legislature were confined to debating government proposals and advising the king. Ultimately, the king must approve any parliamentary acts before they become law. Sobhuza II was the worlds longest reigning monarch when he died in 1982 at the age of 83. He was born the same year in which his father, King Ngwane V, died. Traditionally, the kings successor is not named until after his death so as to prevent the successor from posing a threat to his father. Sobhuza was chosen from among his fathers many heirs by a tribal council headed by the queen mother, or favored wife, who is designated as a She-Elephant. Sobhuzas power was partly based on tradition and on his peoples belief that he was the great rain-maker and the sole source of fertility in Swaziland. The role he played during the British protectorate, while viewed as merely ceremonial, was in fact very important because ritual plays a large role in the lives of the Swazis. On August 21, 1982, the full powers of the head of state were transferred to the constitutional dual monarch x2014 the Queen Mother, or She-Elephant ( Indlovukazi ). The Queen Mother, Dzeliwe, also took the title of Queen Regent. On August 9, 1983, Dzeliwe was replaced in a palace coup by Queen Ntombi, the mother of Sobhuzas successor, Prince Makhosetive. The new Queen Regent was advised by the Supreme Council of State ( liqoqo ) and was assisted by Prince Sozisa Dlamini in administering state affairs until his suspension in September 1984. It was expected that Queen Ntombi would act as regent until her son reached age 21 and was crowned king. During that time, the young prince was to receive his formal education in England as well as learn his countrys tribal customs and laws. However, due to the power struggle between members of Sobhuzas family that began with the dismissal of Queen Dzeliwe, the regency of Queen Ntombi was terminated three years early. Prince Makhosetive, Sobhuzas second youngest son, born April 19, 1968, was crowned King Mswati III on April 25, 1986. Swaziland is one of only three monarchies that rule on the African continent. The others are Morocco and Lesotho. Swaziland has two court systems. Swazi National Courts, under the Ministry of Local Administration, administer Swazi law and custom and all rules made by the Ngwenyama or chiefs. The other system, under the Ministry of Justice, deals with matters in the modern sector. It comprises a number of magistrate courts throughout the country, plus a one-man high court (chief justice) and a multi-judge court of appeal, convened when necessary to review decisions of the high court. Red Cross, Scouting, and 4-H (called 4-S in Swaziland) are active in varying degrees throughout the country. Swaziland is a member of the United Nations, UNESCO, WHO, the Economic Commission for Africa, and several other world and African organizations. It maintains diplomatic relations with 40 countries, including Israel, Mozambique, Taiwan. the United Kingdom. and the United States. all of whom have embassies in Mbabane. Swaziland also maintains diplomatic missions abroad in London Washington, D.C. Maputo. Mozambique and Nairobi. Kenya . Swazilands flag consists of five horizontal bands: narrow blue (for peace), broad crimson (for past battles), and narrow blue, divided by gold stripes (for mineral resources). The large central emblem consists of an ox-hide shield and spears decorated with feathers. Arts, Science, Education Much of the Swazi artistic expression is reflected in traditional dances held several times a year nationally, and more frequently on a regional basis. Best known are the dances performed by special male troupes called Sibaca dancers by puberty-age girls in the annual Reed Dance in reverence to the queen mother and by men of the various age-group regiments in their year-end homage to the king on the occasion of the religious festival of Incwala. Choral singing is another form of artistic expression for the Swazis. Regional, national, and international competitions are held annually. Swazi handicrafts are widely recognized as being among the most creative in Africa. In recent years, a lively export market has been established worldwide. The Mantenga Craft Center, located south of Mbabane near Swazilands most famous waterfall x2014 Mantenga Falls x2014 has contributed to the success of the handicraft market in stimulating the natural weaving ability of local women trained at the center. Established in May 1976 as the countrys original handicraft center, Mantenga Craft Center trains people in tapestry, rug-making, ceramics, screen-printing, and the making of silver jewelry. The center consists of a series of workshops converted from farmsheds situated in the cool shade of tall trees, and today employs 150 local craftspeople. Pictorial tapestries, woven from handspun, hand-dyed wools, cotton, and mohair are among the most outstanding items produced at the center. Scenes depicted in the tapestries are based on the pastoral elements of daily traditional life. The workers at the center also produce intricate woven hair tapestries. These are based on the traditional African culture that decreed a wide range of hairstyles. The tapestries are woven in merino wool, with long thick strands of cotton or linen representing the hair, which is tied, twisted, and knotted in various styles. Many of these tapestries have been displayed in Europe or are in private collections. Handwoven cottons produced on fast-shuttle looms are another specialty of the Mantenga Craft Center. Designs are taken from traditional and contemporary symbols of local life and are sewn into placemats, tablecloths, and bedspreads. Beautifully shaped pottery, with a distinctive earthy look, is yet another facet of the centers craftsmanship. Primary education in Swaziland is voluntary beginning at age six and lasting for seven years. Secondary education is by choice it begins at age 13 and is divided into two cycles of three and two years. Swaziland is the site of two campuses of the University of Swaziland, both some 20 miles southeast of Mbabane. The Kwaluseni campus houses the faculties of humanities, economics and social studies, education, and science the Luyengo campus houses the faculty of agriculture, which operates a farm and several research stations around the country. In addition to the University, several schools exist for technical training, adult literacy, management, and teacher training. In 1995, 77 percent of the Swazis were considered literate. Almost all of them have at least attended primary school. Commerce and Industry Since independence in 1968, Swaziland has made steady progress in terms of economic growth and has significant promise for the future. Given its size and population, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Africa. Because of the pineapples and sugarcane grown here, it is often called the African Hawaii. Real growth averaged around 4.7 percent in the 1970s from 1979 through 1982, it averaged about 1.7 percent in 1984, it jumped to 11 percent. In 1990, real growth rate was estimated at five percent. This has been made possible by rapid expansion in the modern agricultural sector and through diversification of the economy as a whole. Swazilands Gross Domestic Product (GDP ) was 4.4 billion in 2000 per capita income was estimated to be about 4,000, making it one of the highest in Africa. However, this figure does not accurately represent the average Swazi, who is still a subsistence farmer. About 60 percent of the countrys land area is held by the Ngwenyama in trust for the Swazi nation. The remaining land is owned primarily by Europeans and commercial companies, many of whom are not resident in Swaziland. The problem of land alienation, stemming from the granting of extensive concessions to Europeans in the last two decades of the 19th century, is still large. However, under a British grant-financed program, the Swazi nation is acquiring under-utilized freehold land on a willing buyer, willing seller basis. Almost 70 percent of the country is unimproved grazing area. About 75 percent of the countrys exports go to South Africa. Agriculture and forestry account for approximately one-quarter of the GNP and employ three-quarters of the work force. However, due to the fact that most land in the country is owned by foreigners, the agricultural sector is almost entirely in non-Swazi hands. The countrys three sugar mills, all of which are irrigated, are located in the lowveld. The sugar industry (headquartered in the southeastern town of Big Bend) produces the largest export and employs close to 20 percent of the work force. Soft drink concentrate and sugar are the main exports. Much of the sugar is exported to the European Union countries. Wood pulp is produced from pine and eucalyptus trees harvested from some of Africas largest man-made forests. Swazilands manufacturing is considered large for a developing country. Manufacturing activities consist primarily of five export-oriented sectors: wood pulp production, drink processing, fruit canning, refrigerators, and sugar processing. Mining has been declining in Swaziland. The Ngwenya iron ore mine, which opened in 1964, ceased production in 1978. Exports stopped late in 1980 with the depletion of the reserves. The Havelock asbestos mine is one of the largest in the world and is 15 percent government owned. In the past Swazis have valued cattle for their own sake as a nonproductive status symbol. They are increasingly regarding them as a source of milk, meat, and profit. Slaughter stock, hides, and skins are becoming important exports. Tourism is a very important component of Swazilands economy. Visitors are attracted to the countrys game reserves and beautiful mountain scenery. Of the total number of visitors, most were from South Africa. Most South Africans are lured by the Swaziland Casino, since gambling is prohibited in South Africa. Most tourist visits to Swaziland are short, usually weekend visits. Nearly 300,000 tourists visit Swaziland each year. Most of Swazilands imports are of South African origin. Principal imports are motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, and chemicals. Remittances by Swazi nationals working in South African mines accounts for a significant percent of national income. Receipts from the Southern African Customs Union provides between a quarter and a half of the governments revenue. The government promotes foreign investment through the National Industrial Development Corporation of Swaziland (NIDCS). The Swaziland Chamber of Commerce and Industry is located in Mbabane. The mailing address is P.O. Box 72, Mbabane. The address of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism is B.P. 451, Mbabane. Transportation Daily flights from Matsapha Airport, near Manzini, link Swaziland, with Johannesburg (for connections to main world routes). Twice weekly there are flights to Kenya, Lesotho, and Tanzania and there are five weekly flights to Botswana. Zambia. and Zimbabwe. Flights leave for Maputo daily except Tuesday and for Durban four times a week. The Swaziland railway crosses from the Ngwenya iron ore mine, near Oshoek, to the Mozambique border, where it connects with the line to the port of Maputo. It does not, however, have passenger service. A private car is essential for the enjoyment of any prolonged stay in Swaziland. Registration and licensing of motor vehicles is a simple procedure, which requires a road-worthiness certificate issued by the Public Works Department. The Mbabane and Manzini areas have taxis (few, expensive, and unreliable) and unscheduled buses. Scheduled buses link the main towns. Few Americans use public transportation Traffic moves on the left. Good all-weather roads link the main centers, but most side roads are dusty and uneven during the dry season, and very slippery and dangerous during the rainy season. The maximum speed limit for all motorists is 50 miles per hour. Drivers must keep within the indicated limits must be careful of pedestrians, particularly children and must keep an eye open for stray cattle. It is not advisable to drive at a high speed on gravel roads, especially in wet weather. Heavy mists, which blankets Mbabane and other areas of the highveld several months each year, combined with poor car maintenance, intoxication, and general risk-taking behind the wheel makes driving hazardous. Indeed, Swaziland has one of the highest accident rates and accident fatality rates in the world. It is highly recommended to wear seat belts at all times, to have children in car seats or seat belts, and to drive defensively. The crime rate in Swaziland, particularly violent crime and theft, is increasing. Car alarms and immobilizers are recommended to combat the escalating rate of car theft in Swaziland. The main national highway runs from Oshoek on the western border to Lomahasha on the eastern border. It is paved for the 65 miles between Oshoek and Mpaka. The remaining 38 miles to Lomahasha are of fair-quality gravel. Thirty-one miles of paved road link the Usutu Forest settlement of Mhlambanyati with the main national highway. Car dealerships in Mbabane include Audi, BMW, Mazda, Nissan, Opel, Toyota, and Volkswagen, Honda and Mercedes are available in Manzini. Third-party insurance is covered by a levy included in the gasoline price. Comprehensive coverage is highly recommended because of the high rate of vehicle theft and accidents. Communications Telephones in Mbabane and Manzini operate on a dial system, and are connected to the rest of Swaziland and to international operators through the local exchange. Direct dialing is available for between many countries, including the U.S. and for calls from those cities to South African exchanges. International and local telegraph facilities are available. Fax machines are incorporated into most business and donor communities. International airmail takes about five days to two weeks between the U.S. and Swaziland. The Swaziland Broadcasting Service (SBS) is on the air in both siSwati and English. FM is the popular mode, but there is one medium-wave station that also provides service. English service is on the air approximately eight hours per day (medium-wave only). Daily programs are listed in the local newspapers. South African broadcasts can be heard in most areas with normal aerials. Voice of America (VOA) medium-wave transmission can be picked up clearly in the evening, and other English-language short-wave transmissions, including the BBC, can be heard in Swaziland with a high-quality FM and short-wave receiver. Color TV is broadcast by the Swaziland Television Broadcasting Corporation for five-six hours each evening, with extended service on weekends. Transmission includes local news and delayed international news from London as well as programs purchased in the U.S. and Europe. With special antennas, you can receive broadcasts from South Africa, including daily South African and international news and sports programming. American expatriates are advised to bring a multi-system or PALI TV set and VCR with them, as local broadcasts and videotapes are PALI system. Several video rental outlets have opened around Swaziland, carrying a good, up-to-date selection. Most tapes are PALI VHS format. There are two daily English-language newspapers in Swaziland that are published Monday through Friday with separate weekendSaturday editions. They are the privately-owned The Times of Swaziland and the parastatal The Swazi Observer . The Swazi News is published weekly. South African newspapers arrive in Swaziland about six hours after publication in Johannesburg. Two magazines are published monthly in Swaziland. Dzadze family magazine covers various aspects of Swazi life, customs, and politics, Swazi TV Times is a TV guide, with local news and events. International editions of Time and Newsweek are sold at newsstands. The Swaziland News Agency in Mbabane carries some London papers, arriving five days after publication, and a limited variety of magazines and paperbacks. Books can be borrowed from the National Library in Manzini, 25 miles from Mbabane, and from the privately-operated lending library in downtown Mbabane. Adequate medical care is available in Swaziland for routine illnesses. Because there are no trauma or intensive care facilities in Swaziland, serious illnesses and accidents must be treated in South Africa. In such emergencies, helicopters airlift patients to Johannesburg or Pretoria to medical facilities and care that compare to those in the U.S. However, helicopter evacuations can only occur during daylight hours, in the absence of rain and fog. In addition to government hospitals and clinics throughout the territory, a few privately run clinics and hospitals operate, which Americans use more frequently. One of the latter, the Mbabane clinic, has 26 beds, major and minor operating rooms, and X-ray equipment. It also has a small medical laboratory, but complicated tests must be performed in South Africa. The Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Manzini, operated under Nazarene missionary auspices, has 25 beds for private patient care, X-ray equipment, a small laboratory, and U.S.-trained anesthetists. A limited intensive-care unit is being added. The Mbabane clinic and the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital provide 24-hour medical care. Swaziland lacks trained anesthetists and functioning EKG equipment. There are also no satisfactory delivery facilities. It is recommended that women plan to deliver in South Africa or elsewhere. There are physicians who provide prenatal care in Mbabane. Most physicians are associated with the local government or missionary-run installations. About half of the physicians in the country were trained in Great Britain or South Africa. Mbabane and Manzini have adequately stocked pharmacies. Dental services are available from the clinic and from private expatriate dentists. Public sanitation facilities (sewage, garbage disposal, etc.) run by the Mbabane and Manzini municipal governments are satisfactory. Water from the town supply is not considered safe for drinking. Milk from the local commercial dairies is pasteurized and is used by many American and other foreign families. Since dairy sanitary controls are not up to U.S. standards, some families prefer to use powdered milk. Tuberculosis, bilharzia, malaria, venereal diseases, and tick fever, are endemic to Swaziland. Malaria is not found in the highveld, but it is found year round in the middleveld and lowveld areas. Those living in or traveling to the lowveld should take malaria suppressants and see a physician at the onset of any fever. Similarly, travelers to Mozambique, Kruger Park, and Natal should take malaria suppressants in all cases, these should be effective against chloroquine-resistant malaria. Bilharzia is still prevalent in all streams, ponds, and lakes below 4,000 feet, and can be contracted simply by coming into contact with the water. Swimming, wading, or washing in natural bodies of water should be avoided here. Snakes, including poisonous species, are common in Swaziland, especially in the bushveld. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ) is an increasing problem in southern Africa as it is worldwide. Local blood supplies are not safe, although they are screened. The American community contributes to a walking blood donor program administered by the Embassy nurse. Advice on AIDS prevention is available from the health staff at the American Embassy and HIV testing is available locally. Roaming dogs are sometimes rabid, even in Mbabane, and persons (especially children) who may be frequently in contact with them should receive injections against rabies. Clothing and Services Mbabanes climate is moderate throughout the year. However, the temperature can vary noticeably between morning and evening in both summer and winter. For this reason, the layered look is practical because various articles of clothing, including a sweater, can be added or removed. Several hot weeks in summer require light dresses or suits. Woolens and sweaters are sometimes needed for the rainy, misty weather common to Mbabane summers and are essential in winter. Therefore, a full range of clothing, including rainwear, is needed. The only clothing taboo in Swaziland pertains to women wearing slacks and pantsuits. Mini-skirts, see-through blouses, and short tennis skirts are not appreciated in town. Women wear short dresses or skirts to work and in the evening. Because of Swazilands outdoor orientation, visitors will find a good pair of walking shoes useful. Adults should bring a supply of dress and regular shoes with them. It is impossible to find shoes in narrow widths such as AA. Childrens shoes are available locally. Sandal-toe or support hose are not obtainable in Swaziland or South Africa. A basic but limited selection of clothing is available in Mbabane at prices generally higher than in the U.S. Adults should bring most of their clothes with them. The range of foodstuffs in Mbabane compares with that available in a small-to medium-size American town, but with occasional shortages. Several grocery stores, produce markets, bakeries, and butcher shops, as well as a delicatessen, are available. Items not available include chocolate chips, solid vegetable shortening, good vanilla extract, and other baking essentials. Some ingredients for Mexican, Italian, and other ethnic dishes are hard to find. However, many can be obtained on shopping trips to South Africa where those items are usually quite expensive. A full range of liquor is available in the local stores. Swaziland also has a brewery. Wine from South Africa is both inexpensive and quite good. Most personal and household needs can be supplied in Mbabane they are usually imported from South Africa and are expensive. Not all American brand name products are obtainable. Clothing repair and dry cleaning facilities are available in Mbabane, but at a standard lower than in the U.S. Dressmakers and tailors are available. The quality is variable. Beauty salons and barbershops are available. Some garages in town do adequate work on European and South African cars, but are rarely able to deal adequately with American makes. American-made cars should be taken to Pretoria, Johannesburg, Durban, or Ermelo (90 miles from Mbabane) for major repairs. Body work is available at a reasonable price. Domestic Help Most houses in Mbabane have servants quarters and many families hire domestic and garden workers. Domestic workers usually live in, sometimes with their children. Workers are usually provided a 13th-month payment, a food allowance, overtime pay for babysitting and dinner parties, and many employers take responsibility for their workers health care. An employment act lists minimum wages and other regulations concerning worker employment. LOCAL HOLIDAYS Jan. 1 x2026 New Years Day Mar.(2nd Mon) x2026 Commonwealth Day MarApr. x2026 Good Friday MarApr. x2026 Easter Monday Apr. 25 x2026 National Flag Day MayJune x2026 Ascension Day History amp Background The Kingdom of Swaziland, surrounded by South Africa and Mozambique. is a country of rolling grassy hills and pine forests covering mountains reaching up to 4,500 feet above sea level. It is the home of the Swazi, a group-oriented, Bantu-speaking people of Nguni descent who settled in the region of what is today Maputo in Mozambique around 1600. Since 1967 archaeologists have claimed that the Bomvu Ridge in the northwestern part of Swaziland is the site of the oldest iron mine in the world, confirming the belief that the knowledge of iron had its origin in this part of the world long before its use was discovered in the Middle East during the Neolithic period. Exploration of open-pit mines and underground adits revealed extremely ancient mining tools and some charcoal that, when dated, established that Africans in southern Africa had mastered the complicated process of separating iron from iron ore already during the Middle Stone Age, long before anybody in the rest of the world had. Archaeologists also found mines exploited for their black and red specularite. Black specularite, a highly valued glittering hematite, was used in the manufacturing of cosmetics and other facial creams. Cosmetics made from black specularite were valued because of their unique quality of enhancing beauty. Red specularite was used in funerary rites. Both black and red specularite were used for curative purposes. Beads and bracelets found amongst the chisels, hammers, wedges, and ax heads discovered at the iron mining sites have led to speculations that women assisted men in mining. These discoveries make Swaziland the original home of the science of cosmetology and metallurgy. In the 1700s the Swazi chief, Ngwane II, led a group of his people over the Lebombo Mountains to what is today southeastern Swaziland. There they came upon the powerful state of Shiselweni whose people they united with the Swazi. During the nineteenth century, the Swazi came into conflict with the powerful Zulu nation. British traders and Boers (Dutch farmers from South Africa) also came to Swaziland in the 1830s. In the 1840s King Mswazi appealed to the British for help against the Zulu. In 1881 the British and the Transvaal governments guaranteed the independence of Swaziland. When gold was discovered in the 1880s, prospectors rushed into the region and deceived the Swazi leaders who could not read and write into signing away control of the land. In 1894 the British and the Boers agreed that the South African Boer Republic would govern Swaziland. This remained in place until 1899. After the South African Boer Republic lost a war with the British, Great Britain took control of Swaziland in 1902. In 1963 it became a British Protectorate, and on 6 September 1968 the independent Kingdom of Swaziland under the rule of King Sobhuza II was established. In 1973 the Ngwenyama (king) abolished the constitutional monarchy imposed by the British and Swaziland became governed as a modified traditional monarchy with executive, legislative, and limited judicial powers as are currently vested in King Mswati III. He rules by decree, according to unwritten law and custom, with the assistance of a council of ministers and national legislature and the help of the Ndlovukazi (mother of the king). Polygamy is legal in Swaziland and many Swazi, including the Ngwenyama . have several wives. Western style education was introduced into Swaziland in 1902 and was designed to provide an education for the European children in this British colony. It was modeled on the segregationist system developed in the Transvaal province in South Africa. By 1916 eight government-maintained schools for European children had been founded and by 1920 free and compulsory education was available to all white children. The education of Swazi children, which never became free and compulsory under British rule, remained primarily the domain of the various Christian missions in Swaziland who established the first native schools around 1900. By 1924, some 17 percent of school-age Swazi children were attending missionary and government-controlled schools where literary education was only provided in so far as it was perceived to be useful for Swazi children. The emphasis was on agricultural and manual training. By 1929 the Swaziland Progressive Association advocated the direct involvement of the Swazi people in issues related to education. In 1940 the British administration enacted the Native Education Proclamation, giving the European Director of Education complete authority over all African schools. This was challenged in the years to come. In the years before the Second World War. the British Colonial office moved to increase the amount of education offered to Africans in the colonies and to increase literacy rates. This process was continued after the War as colonies were prepared for self-rule. In 1963, as the Kingdom of Swaziland approached independence and saw as one of its goals the evolution of a non-racial society, the racially segregated educational system which had been developed in South Africa was rejected and a racially integrated school system was implemented. By 1965, there was a decreasing emphasis placed on industrial arts or manual labor and an increased emphasis on arithmetic, English, Zulu, and other academic subjects in the syllabi for both primary and secondary schools instead. In 1968 a study authorized by the Resident Commissioner of Swaziland recommended that secondary education in Swaziland be reorganized so as to meet an independent Swazilands need for a trained labor force, which included specialized workers, bureaucrats and professionals. After Independence in 1968, the goal of the new government was to attain universal primary education by 1985. In 1975 the National Education Commission set new guidelines stating that education should reflect Swazi life and custom and that the emphasis should not be solely on the academic, but also on the practical. During the 1990s the Swaziland Ministry of Education proposed a nine year basic education program that diversified the curriculum and included both academic and practical subjects such as agriculture, home science, technical subjects, and commercial studies. Presently, further proposals are being made to increasingly diversify the curriculum at the senior level and increase the number of practical subjects in order to support a larger agricultural program. Today, in a country where the literacy rate is between 70 and 80 percent, the debate continues over the relevance of and the changes which might need to be made to the present educational system. Traditional African society is, even in modern times, centered around the homestead, the principal social unit. As a result, traditional education, the responsibility of the entire community, seeks continuity and inter-generational communication as parents and older relatives teach the young respect and obedience as well as about their accumulated knowledge, ways, and traditions, which are related to the childs surroundings, to prepare them not only for adulthood and employment, but for every stage of life. Individualism is tempered with a group identity which is created because all Swazi people pass through various life stages together with their age mates and are taught to share, cooperate, be generous, brave, and loyal. Through the process of colonization and the dominance of the Western style of life, Western formal education, which strives for change and relies on curriculum and an abstract examination system, is an alien import often in direct contrast to traditional African education and values, which creates a dichotomy with the existing traditional cultural value structures. Swazi students must cross between these two cultures every day. Yet, little attention has been paid to helping them adapt to their educational environment, which is in total contrast to the one they have inherited, and come to terms with Western formal education, which, though disruptive, is becoming increasingly important. Success at a Western-style school is the prerequisite for formal sector employment. Swazi parents generally wish their children to have access to both a Western-style education and to be grounded in the traditional practices of Swazi culture. The process of acculturation and learning to live between cultures has been made even more difficult for the Swazi child whose father is part of the migrant labor force. Although Swaziland is primarily an agricultural society and has a varied economy and rich agricultural and mineral resources, most families have at least one member engaged in wage employment, most of which takes place in the gold mines and industries of South Africa. As Swazi children, even those born outside of marriage, can only gain family inheritance and status in society through their father, it is extremely important that they not only know their father, but grow up within the cultural kinship structures which ensure their acceptance and future identity in society. When fathers are continually absent, the place of the children in society often becomes ambiguous, and they exhibit negative attitudes toward formal learning. It is likely that the absence of fathers could be part of the problem behind the high drop out rate in Swazi schools and the relatively small number of students who go beyond primary school. As is the case in the majority of Africa, AIDS is becoming a serious threat. It is not yet apparent how this will affect educational patterns in the years to come. Political, Social, amp Cultural Bases in Education: Swaziland has a traditionally British-style formal education system. This means that the structure of the education system reflects that of England. that English is both a subject taught and the medium of instruction, that the education is Euro-centric rather than Afro-centric, and that the standards and rules for examinations are set in England and not in Mbabane. As students are prepared for the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate, the higher education, which follows the school leaving exam, will also be modeled along British lines, rather than according to African needs and criteria. While it can be argued that such an education gives those who are able to succeed greater access to international education and research, it can also be seen as one of the reasons for the high dropout rate. Since 1989 Swaziland has embarked on a program to localize senior high school level examinations. Until the mid-1970s Swaziland shared a common examinations board and university with the other two former British Protectorates in the region, Lesotho (the former Basutoland) and Botswana. Even though Swaziland is landlocked and, except for the eastern border which adjoins the Peoples Republic of Mozambique, to a large extent surrounded by South Africa, once itself a British colony, its education system reflects little of its neighbors system. Its dependence on foreign educators means that multinational characteristics are apparent in some of the developing educational structures. However, even though the government of Swaziland spends 34 percent of its total budget on education, some of the main challenges facing Swazilands educators have been a lack of financial resources, which are needed to offset the growing demand for well-educated local teachers, as well as the need for literacy and vocational and technical training outside of the formal academic setting. In modern day Swaziland a number of laws, which directly address childrens issues, attest to the governments concern with the rights and welfare of children. A government task force educates the public on childrens issues. Even though the government does not provide free, compulsory education, it has a 99 percent primary school enrollment rate. The government pays teachers salaries while student fees pay for books and the building fund. Because of the high dropout rate, about 25 percent of primary and secondary students do not continue to attend school, in some cases because parents cannot afford the fees. Many capable youngsters find patrons to pay their fees or obtain scholarships in order to continue their schooling. Constitutional amp Legal Foundations In the first post-independence National Development Plan of 1969 and the 1972 Manifesto signed by the Imbokodvo National Movement, the Government of Swaziland proclaimed that education, whether in state subsidized or private schools, was to be controlled by the Government of Swaziland and an inalienable right that all children and citizens have regardless of their capabilities. The bias inherited from the colonial school system was to be uprooted, and students were to be educated not merely as clerks, teachers, and nurses, but also in other areas. As the purpose of education is to produce an enlightened and participant citizenry, its content must be work-oriented from the primary to the higher levels. The government sees as its goal the universal, free primary education for every child of Swaziland and that merit and aptitude will be the only criteria for selection into secondary and other forms of higher education. The government will continue to provide special state bursaries and scholarships for higher education improved and enlarged facilities for secondary education, with special extra-mural facilities and special schools and specialized educational institutions for handicapped and retarded children. Love for the land, loyalty to the King and the country, self-respect, self-discipline, respect for the law, the highest degree of knowledge, and the building of character are the goals of education. The Manifesto emphasizes that teachers are crucial in the implementation of Swazilands educational policies and should be well provided for. Swaziland has set and monitored its educational goals within the framework of five-year National Development Plans. The First National Development Plan (1969-1973) focused mainly on the expansion and improvement of primary and secondary education, the training of teachers, and curriculum development. A particular concern was the eradication of illiteracy and that all Swazi citizens should be provided with an education appropriate to their needs and abilities and to the countrys development requirements. Progress made in these first five years after Independence was such that the Second National Development Plan (1973-1978) could place emphasis on the restructuring and the raising of the quality of education. By the time of the Fourth National Development Plan (1984-1988), the government was able to focus on improving quality and relevance in education and expand teacher training. While continuing dropout and failure rates, overcrowded classrooms, and inadequate educational facilities indicate that many of the goals were not met, the plan is evidence of the Swazi governments commitment to education. Language Policy: At independence Swaziland, like most other African countries, faced the need to make a choice regarding both the national and the official language they were to use. Such a decision involves practical issues of survival, such as economic trade and development and international communication. There were also issues relating to political, social, cultural, and personal identity. In the Anglo and Francophone countries, the languages of the colonial powers were already the official languages used for administrative, legal, and economic purposes. They were, however, also the language of the oppressor, the one being asked to give the indigenous nation its independence and leave. The national language, on the other hand, is the language of the people, the language of pride, self-worth, and cultural and national identity. It is the language that was ignored or even ridiculed by the colonial power, and at best it was a minor subject taught in school. It is, however, also a language not equipped as a vehicle for wider communication and trade. Unlike many other African countries, Swaziland has only one national language, siSwati. The dilemma facing educators is that in the midst of the process of encouraging students to gain their own national and cultural identity through education, there is the implicit suggestion that their own language is inadequate and therefore inferior. Though the education system was inadequate and the formal education received by Swazi children was unequal to that of whites, Swaziland, like most British colonies and in comparison to some of its immediate neighbors, had a relatively useful educational system at independence. However, English was the medium of instruction. It was thus almost inevitable that English would continue to be the language used in the classroom. Also, in 1966, when Swaziland became independent, it would have been difficult to provide secondary school education through siSwati as the latter had not yet been developed as a written language. In 1967 siSwati was introduced as a school subject and other languages such as Zulu and Afrikaans. two of South Africas languages, were phased out. SiSwati was tested for the first time at the Primary School Examination in 1975, the Junior Certificate level in 1978, and the Senior Certificate level in 1980. The early years of primary school are generally taught in siSwati, and English is one of the subjects taught. English, as the medium of instruction for all subjects, is used exclusively from the secondary level onward. It is also taught as a subject. It is impossible to pass either the Junior or the Senior Certificate exams without passing English. The countrys bilingual education system causes some concern for educators. Psychologically the learning of English, the requirement that students speak it fluently to whose who speak English as a first language, and the studying of all subjects in a language totally foreign in style, cultural base, and concept to ones own, as well as having to compete with others in their mother-tongue, is far too exacting a task for any but the most linguistically talented students. It is highly probable that this state of affairs disadvantages many students prospects and can be one of the reasons for the high failure and dropout rate. On the other hand, English is the language of international access and studying in English gives those able to attain the necessary language skills access to the international world of science, technology, commerce, and politics as well as to the Internet . Efforts to promote cultural identity and nationalism through the regular use of siSwati have met with positive responses since it gained recognition as a written language rich in literature and vocabulary. In order to develop a sense of national pride and emphasize the importance of having ones own language, siSwati is taught from a pure linguistic and historical linguistic point of view at the university level. Local writers are being encouraged to write within the local environment, and book publishers such as Macmillan and Longman are running writing workshops to further these endeavors. Well-known writers from South Africa have given talks at these workshops, and UNESCO has sponsored a research project which includes lexicographical field work to promote the love, awareness, and importance of Swazi culture. Educational System x2014 Overview Swazilands school system consists of twelve school years. The seven years of elementary or Junior School (Grades 1 to 7) culminate in the Swaziland Primary Certificate. The three years of junior secondary school (High School - Forms I to III) culminate in the Junior Certificate (J.C.). The two years of higher secondary school (High School - Forms IV to V) lead to the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate (C.O.S.C.) at the Ordinary Level (O levels). There are very high dropout rates throughout elementary and secondary school. The government has insufficient resources to provide either enough secondary schools or to provide alternate education or training for those who do not complete elementary or secondary school. Poverty and traditional constraints also play a role here. Preprimary amp Primary Education There are very few preprimary or nursery schools in Swaziland. Nearly all preprimary schools are privately operated. Consequently, only a very small percentage of Swazi children are enrolled. Government-maintained primary schools in Swaziland cater to more than 155,000 students. Influenced by the British colonial system, primary education consists of seven levels. The first two years are called Grades 1 and 2, and the next five years are called Standards 1 to 5. At the age of six or seven, children attend comprehensive, academically oriented schools and study a core of general education subjects. SiSwati is the medium of instruction until Standard 2, and English is one of the subjects taught. In Standard 2 the transfer to English is made. SiSwati is then taught as a school subject. Other core courses offered are mathematics, Zulu, science, and social science. Agriculture, home economics, physical education, and developmental studies are also offered in some schools. At the completion of the seventh year of junior school, the Swaziland Primary Certificate exam, prepared by the Department of Education, is administered. The result of this exam is the most important criteria for admission into secondary education or high school. However, because of the shortage of secondary school places, passing the Swaziland Primary Certificate does not guarantee admission into a high school. According to official statistics, there were twenty-eight primary school students per teacher in 1996. However, these figures are misleading as numbers vary dramatically in rural and urban areas. Urban amp Rural Schools: Often there are much older children and even some adults in the elementary school classrooms. This is not as common an occurrence as it used to be when Western-style formal education was first introduced and is not generally regarded as a problem either by the students or the teachers. Primary school teaching varies in the different areas and is largely dependent on the qualification and level of sophistication of the teachers. The latter will vary in the rural and urban areas. The acute shortage of teachers has out of necessity led to the use of unqualified teachers. Repeaters amp Dropouts: In 1993 the United Nations Childrens Fund indicated a 100 percent enrollment rate of the primary school age population. In reality, however, the Swaziland Government predicted in 1992 that for every hundred pupils entering grade one that year, only 22.4 percent would complete primary school within the seven year time period and only 6.6 percent were expected to complete the entire secondary school cycle and enter tertiary level education. By the mid-1990s the national average for children dropping out before reaching Grade 5 was 5.2 percent. The dropout rate is higher in the rural areas rather than in the urban areas where the best schools and the wealthiest people can be found, all of which leads to lower dropout rates. There were also more repeaters in the rural than in the urban areas, and statistics released by the Swaziland Government show that 17 percent of boys repeated but only 13 percent of girls did. Of those who dropped out in the rural areas, most did so because of personal crises, the majority related to lack of financial resources and secondly to pregnancy, rather than because of lack of academic readiness or qualifications. Inability to pay tuition fees and purchase uniforms means that children are sent home until parents can afford the tuition payments. The need for boys to tend livestock, especially when the father is a migrant worker, leads to absenteeism and repetition. Because of the breakdown of traditional Swazi culture and the absence of migratory fathers, women can no longer depend on the institution of marriage and the extended family to support them and their children. Thus girls are often more highly motivated to attain a good education than boys are. Secondary Education General Survey: Government and government-aided secondary schools in Swaziland cater to more than twenty thousand students. Entrance into a secondary school depends on whether students have passed the Swaziland Primary Certificate Exam and whether there are seats available in a secondary school. Only about one in five students enrolled in primary school can go on to secondary school. Secondary education is neither free nor compulsory, fees are charged for tuition and books, and all secondary schools are comprehensive and geared towards the goal of obtaining entrance to a university. Recently, more practical education in the form of optional vocational courses are being offered. Most schools provide study periods within the school day for the preparation of homework. Extracurricular activities, such as sports and clubs, occur after the school day. Many schools provide boarding facilities for students. According to official statistics, there were 16 secondary school students per teacher in 1996. However, these figures are misleading as numbers vary dramatically in rural and urban areas. Curriculum x2014 Examinations, Diplomas: Forms I to III, the first three years of junior secondary school, lead to the Junior Certificate (J.C.), administered originally by the Examinations Council of Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland but more recently by the Swaziland Ministry of Education. Forms IV to V, the last two years of High School, prepare students for the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate (C.O.S.C.) examinations at the Ordinary (O) level. Only three schools in the three countries offer Form VI which leads up to the Advanced (A) level examinations. As the J.C. is the most common entry-level qualification for employment, there has been greater emphasis on the curriculum for Forms I to III. Consequently, the syllabus leading up to the O level exam has often been unrelated to the syllabus of the previous years, causing students to have to cram the entire syllabus into their last two years of study. Today there is greater coordination between the two different levels. The curriculum leading to the J.C. exam is based on seven subjects a year, with forty 40-minute periods each week. The core subjects are English x2014 nine periods a week integrated science x2014 eight periods a week mathematics x2014 seven periods a week and siSwati x2014 four periods a week. Four periods a week are devoted to either development studies, geography, or history. Another four periods are devoted to a practical subject such as agricultural studies, typing or bookkeeping, domestic science, or woodwork. In order to comply with the requirements of the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate Examinations (C.O.S.C.), the Swaziland Ministry of Education recommends that students choose the arts curriculum which consists of seven subjects requiring forty periods per week and the following subjects: five periods per week English Language four periods per week English literature seven periods per week mathematics and biology five hours per week of either siSwati or French four or five hours per week of two subjects from the group Development Studies x2014 geography and history and five hours per week of one practical subject. Should students wish to follow the Cambridge Science Curriculum, the core curriculum consists of five periods per week of English Language, seven periods per week of Mathematics, five or six periods per week of Biology, and eight hours per week of Physical Science. Promotion at the end of each year is based on final exams and on overall evaluation of the students work during the year. The principal, the teachers, and the community set the grading standards. Often grading standards vary. This is due to the fluctuating availability of teachers and to the fact that some courses are often not taught in the more remote parts of the country. Consequently, the examination results do not always reflect the students aptitude for further education. In an attempt to diversify the secondary school curriculum, Matsapha Swazi National High School offers an increased number of courses in development studies, home economics, and commercial subjects, as well as the traditional academic subjects. Waterford-Kahlamba School, an international private school, not part of the Swazi educational system, offers an A-level curriculum. Teachers: Secondary school teachers are, theoretically, trained at the postsecondary level. In practice, however, there is a severe shortage of qualified secondary school teachers and those who are qualified will often elect not to teach in remote areas or in areas where there is no electricity or running water. Which courses are offered depends on the ability of an area to attract qualified teachers. As a result of the teacher shortage, there is a heavy reliance on expatriate teachers, in some areas as high as two-thirds, supplied by the United States or through the Peace Corps, for example. This state of affairs provides neither continuity nor cultural understanding of the pupils in the educational system. Vocational Education: Two types of technical and vocational education are available: Pre-service vocational education in, amongst others, agriculture, commerce, or nursing is obtained in a school setting within a formalized system of education and In-service, which is out-of-school education where apprenticeship is the primary element of the program. Most of these programs, though supported by the government, have been established with foreign technical and financial assistance and are therefore influenced by foreign educational systems. The Swaziland College of Technology (S.C.O.T.) in Mbabane works in close cooperation with the University of Swaziland, which is responsible for setting the regulations and awarding certificates to students who train to be technical teachers at S.C.O.T. Certificates awarded qualify recipients to teach at the J.C. level, and diploma courses qualify recipients to teach through Form V. Certificates are also awarded in library studies and in English proficiency related to technical studies. During the 1970s the debate in Swaziland centered around the concern regarding whether education should be for a few or for all, whether quality should be stressed, and how much tradition should be incorporated in regarding the need to adapt to modern technological demands. It was decided that education should be integrated with work, and students should be prepared at any stage for life in predominantly rural communities. Accordingly, subjects were introduced which would prepare students to participate more fully in industrial, agricultural, and community development and not only in the academic areas. Today agricultural subjects, elective subjects in the J.C. and O level exams, prepare students for practical participation in the Swazi economy and also qualify them for further academic studies. The Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Swaziland offers agricultural education at the certificate and diploma levels as well as at the degree level. The J.C. is required for admission to the two year secondary-level certificate course. The C.O.S.C. with credits in English and mathematics is required for entrance to the two-year programs that award diplomas in agriculture, agricultural education, animal production and health, and home economics. All students undertake practical assignments, some, for example, on the experimental farm run by the university. Higher Education The University of Swaziland (UNISWA), the National University of Lesotho, and the University of Botswana, are offshoots of a common university. These universities had their origin in the Pius XII College, a Catholic University College which was founded by the Roman Catholic Hierarchy of Southern Africa on 8 April 1945 on a temporary site at Roma. The objective of the College was to provide African Catholic students with a post-matriculation (high school exit exam) and religious education. In 1946 the College moved to its permanent site, and by 1959 it had 171 students from the original 5. By 1963 the number of students had grown to 180 and necessary facilities had been added. At that time there was a special agreement with the University of South Africa in Pretoria. a distance education institution which examined the students and offered degrees in Arts, Science, Commerce, and Education. In the early 1960s, as apartheid legislation in South Africa became more restrictive, problems arose with regard to student residence requirements. Consequently, an independent, non-denominational university was established by Royal Charter through the High Commission for Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland. On 1 January 1964, under a Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth II of England, the Pius XII College became an integral part of the independent, non-denominational University of Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland. In 1966, after independence was granted to present day Botswana and Lesotho, the name was changed to the University of Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Its first degrees in 1967 were offered in four-year programs in science and education and a law degree, which included two years of study at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. The University was funded equally by the governments of all three countries, but the main campus was in Lesotho. There was also no university presence in the other two countries with the exception of the beginnings of the Faculty of Agriculture in Luyengo, Swaziland. After independence in 1966, campuses were established in Gaborone, Botswana and Kwaluseni, Swaziland. On 20 October 1975, the Roma campus in Lesotho withdrew to become the National University of Lesotho. The other two constituent colleges continued as the University of Botswana and Swaziland until July 1982, when separate universities were established. The University of Swaziland (UNISWA) has two campuses - one at Luyengo for agricultural faculty and another at Kwaluseni for academic and professional courses. Undergraduate and post-graduate degrees in the arts, sciences, commerce, education, and law are offered. Courses are also available in accounting, business management, and marketing. The enrollment for the 1996-1997 academic year was 2,533 full-time students. Admission to degree courses require the C.O.S.C. with a credit in English language and in mathematics if the student wishes to follow the B.Sc. program or the Matriculation Certificate of the Republic of South Africa, provided credit has been gained for English at the Higher Grade Level. Bachelors degree programs are generally four years in duration with the academic year broken into two semesters of fifteen weeks each. A final exam is administered at the end of each year. In the grading system, the grade of A, a First Class degree, is rarely given. Grades of B and C are considered very strong grades and to receive a D is to receive a respectable grade. In order to receive a degree, an overall D average must be obtained. In line with the British influence, Masters degree programs are normally research-oriented, though some coursework may be required. Masters degrees are offered in the arts, science, and education. ปริญญาเอก Programs are research-oriented. UNISWAs professors are well qualified. Many are expatriates, which gives the university an international character. Special care has also gone into the funding and setting up of the library. UNISWAs Division of Extra-Mural Services (D.E.M.S.) provides part-time studies in several fields and has developed a distance learning program for the Certificate in Adult Education that provides basic professional training to personnel already engaged in adult education. Prerequisites for admission are the Junior Certificate in Education plus two years of relevant work experience. Other alternative qualifications are considered. The Department also offers correspondence courses based on the Cambridge GCE O-level syllabus. Higher education is free for qualified students. Apart from UNISWAs two campuses there are three teachertraining colleges, two nursing colleges, various vocational institutions, and the Swaziland College of Technology. The government provides adult education to improve literacy. Nonformal Education Economic constraints, vast distances between cities, and the remoteness of large numbers of the population in even a relatively small country like Swaziland make it necessary for many people to obtain education, especially higher, through distance education. It is thus not always easy to distinguish between formal and nonformal education. The Swaziland International Education Centre, which opened in 1973 in Mbabane, provides continuing education for adult Swazis throughout the country. It supervises an intensive program of correspondence courses leading to the junior certificate examination. Numbers enrolled exceed 1,500 individuals per year, of whom approximately 1000 are over 20 years of age. The Emlalatini Development Centre, funded by the Ministry of Education and sponsored by the Danish Development Agency, provides alternative educational opportunities for school children and young adults who have not been able to complete their schooling because they have failed to obtain adequate examination results. Through correspondence material, short residential courses and radio they offer English, mathematics, social studies, science, siSwati, religious studies, and home economics to students wishing to complete either their Secondary Education or vocational training. The Swaziland governments keenness to further education in the country is seen in the large amount of the budget it allocates both to education and to telecommunications. By 1968 Swaziland Broadcasting Service made 9 hours of educational radio broadcasting per week available, by 1991 some 18 hours per week were allotted, and, during school terms, one third of all week day programs are directed to school use. The Ministry of Education, aided by UNESCO, has conducted training courses in the production of educational television programs and has built a special studio for educational television program production and broadcasting so that transmission can be extended throughout the nation. Commercial companies have also donated television sets to some schools. The Institute of Development Management in Swaziland, with the help of funds from Canada. organizes courses for middle and senior levels of management in the civil service and state-run concerns. Telecommunications technical training is available at the Swaziland College of Technology. Swaziland also operates a Multi Country Training Centre jointly with Malawi, Lesotho, and Botswana. In 1980, several African countries comprising mainly of the so-called front-line states, those countries most affected by the political struggle in and most economically dependant on South Africa x2014 Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania. Zambia. and Zimbabwe x2014 joined together to form the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC). In 1992 they were joined by Namibia. In 1994 South Africa became the eleventh member of the organization, which was then renamed the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The role of these organizations was to encourage economic independence for its members through the improvement of national and inter-country communications infrastructures, the growth of inter-country trade and cultural ties, and the mutual support of each countrys educational system. By implementing joint training facilities and organizing joint training sessions in these countries, the Southern African Transport and Communications Commission (SATCC), one arm of the SADC, promoted cooperation in human resource development. SATCC also promotes cooperation among the telecommunications administrations of the region via the Pan African Telecommunications (Panaftel) microwave network and satellite links, international gateway exchanges, and earth stations. These projects undertaken by Penaftel are vital for the furthering of distance education both in Swaziland. Swazilands strong telecommunications infrastructure, the high literacy and educational level of its population, and its well-developed radio and television network make it a practicable proposition for distance education initiatives of organizations such as the Commonwealth of Learning. Teaching Profession Teacher training takes place at both the secondary and tertiary levels. Programs are offered at both teacher training colleges and universities. While the Swaziland Primary Certificate is generally regarded as too low a standard of admission, it may be accepted, especially because of the shortage of teachers. Most programs, however, require either a J.C. or the C.O.S.C. with passes in English and mathematics. Students who are admitted with a J.C. are expected to catch up with C.O.S.C. holders. Most programs require two years, some require three. Programs at Swazilands three teacher training colleges: The Primary Teachers Certificate, requiring a J.C. plus two years secondary education. The Secondary Teachers Certificate, requiring the C.O.S.C. plus two years tertiary education. The teacher training colleges also offer professional certificates for in-service study. These range from lower certificates for upgrading unqualified and underqualified teachers to higher certificates for furthering the training of qualified teachers. Programs offered at the University of Swaziland: The Certificate in Primary Education, requiring the C.O.S.C. plus three years of tertiary education. The Diploma in Education, requiring the Primary or Secondary Teachers Certificate plus two years experience and one year tertiary education. The Diploma in Adult Education, requiring the C.O.S.C. plus four years experience and one and a half years tertiary education. The Secondary Teacher Training Program consists of education courses and a basic core of English, social studies, and the preparation of teacher aids. Students may specialize in either home economics or elementary technology. They may also choose English, in which they cover general composition and general literature, siSwati, or religious knowledge as their major area. The University of Swaziland offers university level education programs which may lead to a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.), a Concurrent Diploma in Education, a Post Graduate Diploma, or a Masters of Education (M.Ed.). Unions amp Associations: The Swaziland National Association of Teachers claims membership of 75 percent of the nations teachers at all levels. The relationship between the Teachers Union and the Ministry of Education is tense at times, primarily because the Education Ministry is answerable to the Swaziland central government, and the latter, being more concerned about its politics and finances than about the changing conditions in the nations classrooms, resents criticism of the nations education bureaucracy. Education in Swaziland needs to increasingly reflect the character and the culture of the people themselves without sacrificing either vocational or workplace preparedness or access to the international community. The long history of colonization has called into question the cultural and national identity of the people. Now the threat is that international globalization and the attempt to educate young people for a life in Europe or in the United States, instead of in their own culture, or to be merely marketable in the commercial arena once again threatens the identity of the Swazi people. The reasons for high dropout and high repeater rates are not necessarily to be found only in the school system itself. For the children of Swaziland to succeed in school and for the educational system to be truly relevant with regard to both the international and the domestic requirements of the people, there needs to be closer collaboration between the educational system and the perceived wishes, needs, and anxieties of the general population. Parents who desire that their children should be educated but, because of lack of education or lack of personal involvement, feel alienated from the school system that educates their children need to be included in decision-making processes. Greater dialogue between parents, educators, school administrators, and political, economic, and social leaders is essential if the frustration many feel at the discrepancy between expectations and possible achievement of academic and personal goals is to be reduced. Bibliography Booth, Margaret Zoller. Parental Availability and Academic Achievement among Swazi Rural Primary School Children. Comparative Education Review 40 (August 1996): 250-263. x2014 x2014. Western Schooling and Traditional Society in Swaziland. In Comparative Education 33 (1997): 433-451. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 1999 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. U.S. Department of State, 25 February 2000. Available from state.gov . Chisenga, Justin. Global Information Infrastructure and the Question of African Content. IFLA Council and General Conference, 20-28 August 1999. Available from ifla.org . Cranmer, David J. and Valerie A. Woolston. Southern Africa: A Study of the Educational Systems of Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa, Southwest Africa Namibia and Swaziland with an Addendum on Zimbabwe-Rhodesia: A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. Washington, D.C. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, 1980. Magalula, Cisco. Implementing Educational Policies in Swaziland. World Bank Discussion Papers 88. (1990). Mordaunt, Owen G. Swazilands Language Policy for Schools. Educational Studies 16 (1990): 131-140. Mutunhu, Tendai. Africa: The Birthplace of Iron Mining. Negro History Bulletin 44 (January-March 1981): 5, 20. x2014 Karin I. Paasche Kingdom of Swaziland COUNTRY OVERVIEW LOCATION AND SIZE. Swaziland is a small landlocked country in southern Africa, with an area of 17,363 square kilometers (6,704 miles), extending 176 kilometers (109 miles) north to south and 135 kilometers (84 miles) east to west. By comparison, it is slightly smaller than the state of New Jersey. It shares a border of 105 kilometers (65 miles) to the east with Mozambique and is otherwise surrounded by South Africa. with which it shares a total border of 430 kilometers (267 miles). It is divided from east to west into 4 well-defined regions: the High-Veld, Middle-Veld, and Low-Veld, and the Lubombo plain and escarpment. Their height ranges from the High-Veld in the west which rises to 1,850 meters (6,070 feet) and the Low-Veld which stands at only 300 meters (985 feet) above sea level. The country is traversed by rivers and streams, making it one of the most well-watered areas of southern Africa. POPULATION. In 2001, the population was estimated at 1,101,343. The population has risen from 906,000 in 1997, and from 712,313 in 1986. The population grew at 2.9 percent annually between 1970-90 and 2.8 percent between 1990-97, while life expectancy in 2001 was 60 years (though the CIA World Factbook reports a figure of 38.62 years). The population growth rate in 2001 was1.83 percent, based on a birth rate of 40.12 per 1,000 and a death rate of 21.84 per 1,000, all based on 2001 estimates. About 33 percent of the population live in urban areas. It is a relatively young population with more than half of the population below 20 years of age. Around 90 percent of the population are Swazi (although there are around 70 district groups), and most of the rest are Zulu, Tonga, Shangaan, European, and people of mixed descent. Large numbers of Mozambicans fled to Swaziland to escape the civil war in their country, but repatriation was completed in 1993 following a return to peace in Mozambique. About 77 percent of Swazi are Christian, with the rest practicing Islam or traditional faiths. English is an official language and the language of government and business, and is widely spoken alongside siSwati, the other official language. OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY Swaziland has one of the highest per capita income levels in Africa, although it is, after the Gambia. the smallest state on the mainland of the continent. According to the CIA World Factbook, Swazilands gross domestic product ( GDP ) per capita in 2000 was estimated at US4,000 at purchasing power parity . high enough to rank Swaziland as a middle-income country. Swaziland experienced slow growth in the 1980s and early 1990s, a period much influenced by world recession and then political changes in South Africa, but there were still increases in the gross national product (GNP) per head of 2.3 percent a year over the period 1980 to 1993. Swaziland has, over the longer period, had one of the most liberal policies towards foreign and private investment in all of Africa. Its vulnerability lies in heavy export dependence on soft drink concentrate and sugar cane and on the strong economic links with South Africa which provides imports, an export market, investment, and employment. Since the late 1980s the countrys economic situation has improved noticeably. The economy has grown more rapidly and foreign investment expanded. A significant part of the food produced is now sold to the European Union (EU). This improvement x2014 initially a direct consequence of trade sanctions against South Africa which forced the EU to turn to Swaziland as an alternative source of food supplies x2014 has allowed the manufacturing sector to increase in importance, contributing 20 percent of the GDP by 1991 and helping the country raise its economic growth rate to 3.5 percent per year. There is a dual administration of Swazilands official resources. The communal land resources (known as Swazi National Land or SNL) and the minerals, are managed by Tibiyo Taka Ngwane, an independent institution created by Royal Charter in 1968 and not responsible to Parliament. The non-communal land and all the other resources are subject to the legislation of Parliament. Swaziland is committed to a free market economy and private ownership: nationalization is illegal. The Swaziland Investment Promotion Authority was set up in 1997 to encourage the growth of private business. Investment accounted for 34 percent of the GDP in 1997, and foreign direct investment was 5.7 percent of the GDP, both very high figures. The government wants to encourage the expansion of industrial sites. The Swaziland stock exchange was established in 1990 and by the late 1990s had 6 companies listed and a market capitalization of US129 million. POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION Swaziland, a British protectorate since 1867, became independent on 6 September 1968. The Kingdom of Swaziland is an absolute monarchy. The king appoints the prime minister and the council of ministers (cabinet) and can legislate by decree. A new constitution was launched in 1968. However, in 1973 the king repealed the constitution, abolishing Parliament and all political parties. A system of government with elections for local councils, who then chose their representatives in the National Assembly, was introduced in 1978, creating a 2-tier form of representative government which was reformed in 1993 to allow the introduction of secret ballots and the direct election of National Assembly members. The vote was granted to all citizens over the age of 21 who were not insane or had not committed serious crimes. There are 30 senators, of whom 20 are appointed by the king and 10 elected by the National Assembly. The National Assembly consists of 65 deputies, of whom 55 are directly elected from candidates nominated by the local councils and 10 appointed by the king. In 1998 government revenues amounted to 27 percent of the GDP. The most recent year for which tax revenue data are available is 1987, when taxes on income, profits, and capital gains generated 38 percent of government revenue, domestic taxes on goods and services 11 percent, export levies and import duties 42 percent, other taxes 1 percent, and non-tax revenue 7 percent. The corporate income tax is 37.5 percent. Small mining companies with net income below the equivalent of around US2,500 are taxed at 27 percent. There is a withholding tax of 15 percent on dividends paid overseas, and dividends paid to residents are taxed at 10 percent. There are tax breaks for companies producing for export, and for companies with staff training programs. INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS Swaziland has a good road network with 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles) of roads, 28 percent of which were paved by 1997. In 1997, there were 78,900 motor vehicles licensed, 4,320 of which were government-owned. Rail service is for freight only. The Kadaka-Goba line links up with Mozambiques Maputo line (providing Swaziland with access to the sea), and since 1986 there has been a direct heavy-duty connection between Mpaka and South Africa. Matsapha International Airport is 8 kilometers (5 miles) from Manzini. The national airline, Royal Swazi National Airways Corporation, operates flights throughout the region. Swaziland generates its power from coal and hydropower. Oil and the coal used for domestic energy generation are imported from South Africa. Swaziland Electricity Board imports over 80 percent of its electricity from South Africa and generates the balance from diesel and hydropower. In 1998 Swazis consumed 198 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity. On-site power generation takes place at the large sugar and wood pulp plants (from waste sugar cane or scrap wood), but they only generate for their own needs. Wood is still an important fuel for the rural population. English language dailies are The Times of Swaziland and The Swami Observer. There were 27 daily newspapers in 1996. The Swaziland Broadcasting Service runs several radio stations, broadcasting in siSwati and English. There is a television channel, run by the Swaziland Television Authority (STA), which covers 80 percent of the population and 60 percent of the country. STA has a monopoly in the TV rentals market. There were 170 radios and 23 TV sets per 1,000 people in 1996. All the main population centers have post offices. International direct dialing is available. The telephone network comprises 14 digital, 5 analog, and 3 manual exchanges. There were 33,500 telephone main lines in use in 2000, in addition to 20,000 cellular phones. ECONOMIC SECTORS The economy of Swaziland depends on soft drinks concentrates and sugar cane for export revenue and on South Africa, which provides significant trade investment and employment. However, Swaziland has one of the best business environments in Africa as a result of its liberal policies towards foreign and private investment since independence. In 2000, the composition of Swazilands GDP was as follows: agriculture, 10 percent industry, 46 percent and services, 44 percent. AGRICULTURE Agricultures share of the GDP fluctuates with the fortunes of the harvest, accounting for 10 percent of the GDP in 2000, 13 percent in 1998, and 11 percent in 1994. The chief products are sugar, wood pulp, maize, citrus, and pineapples. About 44 percent of land is held on a free-hold basis (that is, the ownership is for an indefinite period in which the owner is free to buy and sell the land), mainly by non-Swazis. Large estates controlled mainly by Europeans produce the sugar, citrus fruits, and forestry products that dominate exports. The remainder of the land, known as Swazi Nation Land (SNL), is farmed on a small-scale by 70 percent of the population, in many cases on a part-time basis. The land is held in trust by the king. All Swazis are entitled to land, which is allocated by the chiefs according to traditional procedures. Sugar used to be the mainstay of the economy until it was overtaken by fruit concentrates. However, it remains the countrys largest source of employment. Maize, the countrys staple food, and cotton are the main products of SNL farmers. Large-scale cotton production is being introduced as the Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation begins to diversify into this crop. Oranges and grapefruit are grown for export on large estates, mainly controlled by Europeans, and mainly in the Low-Veld area. Unbleached wood pulp is 1 of Swazilands main export earners. Plantations cover 6 percent of the country, mainly in the High-Veld. Nearly two-thirds of this is made up of Usutu forest, one of the largest man-made forests in the world. The Usutu forest consists mainly of pine and eucalyptus and alone provides about 12 percent of the world supply of wood pulp. The Usutu pulp company is the countrys largest employer. Indigenous industry produces mining and construction timber and furniture from local wood, some of which is exported. Cattle are the traditional sign of wealth, and 80 percent of the cattle population remains in the hands of Swazi smallholders . The traditional nature of cattle raising has led to the slow development of the meat industry, as there is a strong resistance to offering cattle for slaughter. Domestic milk production is increasing and beef, tinned and frozen, is exported to the EU and South Africa. The industrial sector is dominated by agro-industries involving local sugar, wood pulp, citrus and other fruit, cotton, and meat. Swaziland has been successful in attracting investment from Coca-Cola (which opened a concentrate plant in 1986) and Cadbury (which opened a new sweets factory in 1989). These, combined with continued investment from the Far East (4 Taiwanese-owned textile plants were opened in 1986), and investments in the mid-1990s in refrigerator production, means that the manufacturing sector continues to grow. However, there has been some domestic unrest caused by low wages. Mining has fallen in importance since the 1960s, contributing only about 1 percent of the GDP in 1997-98. High-grade iron ore was exhausted by 1978, and health concerns have reduced the world demand for asbestos. Asbestos mining (by a joint venture between the government and a South African Company, HVL Asbestos) is nevertheless the principal mining activity. Production was 27,700 tons in 1998, and most of this was exported. Deposits are mainly in the High-Veld. The diamond mine at Dvokolwako closed at the end of 1996. A new coal mine at Maloma in the south of the country opened in 1993 which produces mainly anthracite for export to Europe (203,100 tons in 1997 and 410,000 tons in 1998). It replaced the now closed Mpaka Mine as the main source of coal. Stone is quarried at 3 centers, and production is increasing. Local construction and roads industries take all stone production. The services sector is very significant to the Swazi economy, comprising 44 percent of the GDP in 2000, up from 37 percent in 1994. Government services accounted for 20 percent of the GDP in 1996-97, and amounted for the majority of services production. Private sector services were dominated by tourism giant, Swazi Spa Holdings (a subsidiary of Sun International, a South African Hotel group). Tourism is mostly on a package-tour basis, and most visitors come from South Africa. The attractions are wildlife, splendid scenery, and casino facilities. Tourist arrivals numbered 322,000 in 1997, generating receipts of about US7 million. INTERNATIONAL TRADE With a small economy, Swaziland does not have enough domestic demand to provide a basis for a wide range of production. Therefore, it must import a variety of goods. Imports typically outweigh exports, as they did in 2000 when imports were valued at US928 million and exports at US881 million. The countrys main exports are soft drink concentrate, sugar, citrus, canned fruit, textiles, wood pulp and refrigerators the main imports are manufactured consumer goods . machinery, transport equipment, food, chemicals, and fuels. South Africa was far and away the dominant trading partner, taking 65 percent of exports and providing 84 percent of imports in 1998. Other major export destinations were the European Union (EU) (12 percent), Mozambique (11 percent), and the United States (5 percent). Other major importers were the EU (5 percent), and Japan and Singapore (2 percent each). The lilangeni is maintained at par with the South Africa rand, as it is in the de facto rand area involving Swaziland, South Africa, Namibia. and Botswana. The rand was on par with the U.S. dollar in the early 1980s, but has since lost value, very rapidly at times in the latter 1990s. In mid-2001, the lilangeni stood at E8.27:US1. In March 1995, a 2-tier financial system (which allowed a different exchange rate for certain transactions) was Trade (expressed in billions of US): Swaziland SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 ONLINE. ended with the abolition of the financial rand, making the currency more vulnerable to international reaction to political developments in South Africa. POVERTY AND WEALTH Swaziland is a lower middle-income country, with a GDP per capita in 2000 of US4,000 using the purchasing power parity conversion factor (which makes allowance for the low price of certain basic commodities in Swaziland). There are no figures for the incidence of poverty, but the number of under-weight children would suggest around 14 percent below the dollar-a-day poverty line. Most of those in poverty obtain their livelihoods from the agriculture sector, and they do not have enough income to provide the barest minimums of food, clothing, and shelter. Income is very unequally distributed, with the poorest 20 percent receiving 2.7 percent of total income in 1998, and the richest 20 percent receiving 64 percent. The poorest groups in the rural areas live in traditional dwellings with timber frames and mud walls, thatched roofing, and a beaten earth or polished cow dung floor. Water comes from a well, sanitation is by pit latrine, cooking is done over a wood fire, and lighting comes from a kerosene lamp. The poor in the urban areas live in shanty dwellings constructed from timber, plastic sheeting, cardboard and GDP per Capita (US) SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators CD-ROM. rusty scrap metal sheets. Water is obtained from a communal tap, sanitation is by pit latrine, cooking is done over charcoal, and kerosene lamps provide light. The wealthier groups live in modern houses with cement block walls and tin roofs, with electricity, piped water, and either a sewage system or a septic tank. The UNs Human Development Index, which combines measures of income, health, and education, put Swaziland at 112 out of 174 countries in 1998, and this placed it in the medium human development category, one of the few African countries to achieve this status. Thus Swaziland has a level of development with relatively few of its population in poverty (more than 50 percent are in poverty in some countries), and has good basic education provisions, with 95 percent of children in primary school and 85 percent in secondary school, and sound health facilities which allow a life expectancy of 60 years (in the rest of Africa it is 49 years). WORKING CONDITIONS In 1997, about 113,000 people were employed in Swaziland: 57 percent in the private sector, 28 percent in the public sector . and 15 percent in the informal sector . An additional 13,000 Swazis worked as miners in South Africa. About 22 percent of the labor force is recorded as unemployed. However, the unemployment rate has little meaning in Africa, for it relates to those registering as looking for jobs in the urban areas as a percentage of the formal labor force. The largest part of the labor force in Swaziland, 60 percent, is in the agricultural sector, much of it in small-scale family farms outside the formal sector. With no social security provisions, those without work or support from families or charities cannot survive. For much of the year in subsistence farming there is relatively little work to do, and what work there is is shared among the family members. During planting and harvesting, there is more work to be done, and everyone is more fully occupied, but even in these periods, there may be more than enough labor to do the tasks, and the work is again shared. Everyone sharing the work appears to have an occupation in agriculture, but in fact workers are not engaged full time for all the year, and hence there is some disguised unemployment. There is a Federation of Trade Unions in Swaziland. Minimum wage levels are set, but the level is low, particularly for female agricultural workers, to avoid creating unemployment. COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1867. Swaziland formally becomes a British protectorate. 1961. The Union of South Africa breaks relations with Britain and toughens racial segregation policies (known as apartheid). Britain accelerates the decolonization process in the region, and Swaziland is granted internal autonomy. 1868. Swaziland gains independence from Britain. King Sobhuza II is recognized as head of state and governs with 2 legislative chambers. Household Consumption in PPP Terms SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000. 1972. Swaziland holds its first parliamentary elections the traditionalist Imbokodvo National Movement wins. 1973. King Sobhuza II declares the constitution un-workable, dissolves parliament, and prohibits political parties and trade unions. The Royal Defence Forces are reactivated. 1977. Elections to Parliament are held under the local council system. 1982. King Sobhuza II dies. The powers of head of state are transferred to Queen Mother Dzeliwe, who is named regent. In a power struggle, traditionalists gain the upper hand. 1983. Prime Minister Prince Mabandla Dlamini, head of the liberal faction, is dismissed and replaced by conservative Prince Bhekimpi Dlamini. The Queen Regent is presented with document transferring most of her power to the Liqoqo, a traditional advisory body. On her refusal to sign, she is ousted in favor of Ntombi, mother of the heir apparent, Prince Makhosetive. Ntombi is installed as Regent, and power rests with the Liqoqo. 1986. Prince Makhosetive is installed as King Mswati III at the age of 18, and the Liqoqo is abolished. 1987. King Mswati III dissolves parliament in September, 1 year early. In November, elections are held and a new cabinet is appointed. 1992. In February the Peoples United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO) declares itself an opposition party, which is illegal. 1993. More than 50 opposition activists are arrested, including leaders of PUDEMO and the Swaziland Youth Congress (SWAYOCO). The local council system of indirect elections ends, and direct elections are held. 1996. PUDEMO announce plans for a campaign of protests and civil disobedience following the govern-ments failure to respond to demands for the installation of a multi-party system and for the adoption of a constitution that would restrict the monarch to symbolic role in government. 1997. In mid-October the Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions (SFTU) calls for countrywide strikes in support of demands for democratic reform after talks with the government fail to produce any agreement. Support for strikes is low as a result of the limited success of earlier strikes. FUTURE TRENDS The Swaziland economy will for the foreseeable future continue to be heavily reliant on the South African economy as well as regional economic organizations such as the Southern African Customs Union and the Southern African Development Cooperation. Its small size and landlocked location make any changes in economic partnerships difficult to envisage. Even with greater regional integration, the dependence on South Africa will continue as South Africa has the largest manufacturing sector in southern Africa, as well as sophisticated financial expertise, and the ability to provide effective management for its investments in neighboring states. Nevertheless, to exploit the benefits of regional integration and maintain economic stability, Swaziland is being pressured to speed-up its privatization program, upgrade infrastructure . and improve the regulation of the financial sector. The political maneuverings have to date been seen as having little effect on the economy. However, there is no doubt that Swaziland will receive more aid and international cooperation if the awaited constitutional review recommends a bill of rights, the introduction of a multiparty democratic system, and the reversion of the king to the role of constitutional monarch. DEPENDENCIES Swaziland has no territories or colonies. BIBLIOGRAPHY Commonwealth Secretariat. Swaziland. The Commonwealth Yearbook 2000. Birmingham, UK: Stationery Office, 2000. Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Profile: Swaziland. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2001. Hodd, Michael. Swaziland. The Economies of Africa. Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1991. maliswazilandmain.htmgt.Accessed September 2001. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2001. ltodci.govciapublicationsfactbookindex.htmlgt. Accessed September 2001. x2014 Allan C. K. Mukungu Mbabane (administrative and judicial) and Lobamba (royal and parliamentary). MONETARY UNIT: The lilangeni (E) the plural is emalangeni. One lilangeni equals 100 cents. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, and 1 lilangeni, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 emalangeni. The lilangeni is on par with the South African rand, which is also accepted as legal tender in the country. CHIEF EXPORTS: Sugar, citrus, canned fruit, soft drink concentrates, textiles, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators. CHIEF IMPORTS: Manufactured goods, machinery, transport equipment, food, chemicals, fuels. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: US4.44 billion (purchasing power parity, 2000 est.). BALANCE OF TRADE: Exports: US881 million (f.o.b. 2000). Imports: US928 million (f.o.b. 2000). Background x2014 General Characteristics Swaziland is landlocked and almost surrounded by South Africa. with Mozambique to the east. Swazilands press industry may be characterized as small, struggling, and mostly dominated by the government x2014 a monarchy led by King Mswati III, who has been enthroned since 1986. The presss growth and size are inhibited by Swazilands weak infrastructure with a predominantly rural population of about 1 million. Low per-capita income renders purchasing newspapers, radios, televisions and the Internet unaffordable luxuries to most residents. The situation is compounded by the devastation the HIV AIDS prevalence of 25 percent in adults, which is threatening life expectancy, population size and socioeconomic productivity. Swaziland, a dual absolute monarchy, attained independence in 1969 after seven decades as a British protectorate. Enforcing the power of the throne the king suspended the constitution in 1973. Ruling by decree, suppressing freedom of expression and association, the regime historically has precipitated unrest and opposition from progressives. This has taken the form of demonstrations and strikes promoting universal suffrage and modern democracy. Consequently, the government established a Constitutional Commission to develop a new constitution but the governments delaying tactics, censorship and harassment of the media, police and security forces brutality, arrests, and detentions without trial that have been leveled against critics of the monarchy leave the country without a constitution. Economically, landlocked Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, its major trading partner. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture (involving around 60 percent of the population) contributing around 25 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP ). Manufacturing also accounts for about 25 percent of GDP. Mining has declined in importance in recent years. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency. Swazilands economy is vulnerable to international price fluctuations of its exports, unfavorable cyclic weather conditions and record-high trade deficits. The press generally is based in Mbabane. the capital city. There is only one daily, the Times of Swaziland with a weekly subsidiary, Swazi News, both state-owned. The Swazi Observer group of papers is made up of the Daily Observer, Weekend Observer and Istantsell. The Nation is a monthly independent newsmagazine. Publishers for periodicals, journals and books include: Tikhatsi Temaswati Apollo Services (Pty) Ltd BGS Printing and Publishing (Pty) Ltd Jubilee Printers Longman Swaziland (Pty) Ltd Macmillan Boleswa Publishers (Pty) Ltd Swaziland Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd. and Whydah Media Publishers Ltd. State-Press Relations The suspended constitution vests supreme legislative and executive power in the head of state who is the hereditary king, and provides for a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Assembly. The kings role is primarily advisory. In the absence of a new constitution delineating press laws, monarchs rule by a 1973 decree is the governing principle. In 1999 anti-defamation legislation was passed requiring government licensing of all journalists and threatening reporters with criminal penalties for publishing so-called inaccurate stories. According to the colonial era Books and Publications Act, the 1968 Proscribed Publications Act reintroduced under the kings Decree No. 3 of July 23, 2001, the state can ban any publication with neither explanation nor legal proceedings. The most recent Internal Security Bill legislation muzzles free press. This is in contrast with media freedom and the freedom of expression found in the pending constitutions Bill of Rights the Swazilands Constitutional Review Commission is expected to finalize by the end of 2002. King Mswati IIIs most recent public statements also uphold freedom of press, but are seemingly confined to issues related to the HIVAIDS pandemics publicity. Government censorship of free press shows a trail of heavy-handed treatment of the press viewed as critical of the monarchy. This is illustrated by various bans on newspapers and attacks on journalists reporting on the governments ill-treatment of political opponents, including newspaper editors and media critical of the monarchy. Further, state monopoly in media ownership of major newspapers, and local television and radio stations, is intended to censor information. Thus, freedom of expression is seriously compromised when editors and journalists of independent and government-controlled media such as the Times of Swaziland (intermittently published since 1897), The Nation, and The Guardian of Swaziland have been temporarily banned. Some have resumed production only after court battles. The Swazi Observer, owned by a national trust and controlled by the king, was closed abruptly in February 2000 for allegedly revealing power squabbles within the government, resuming publication in January 2001. State-press relations are rampant with the kings allegations of the press inciting disloyalty, and degrading or undermining the monarchy through negative reporting. Many journalists have referred to Swazilands treatment of journalists as reminiscent of the way the defunct apart-heid South Africa government repressed the press. Reporters and journalists have experienced various forms of police brutality, intimidation, killings, retrenchment, arrests, defamation, beatings, destruction of equipment, accusations of being disrespectful to the monarchy, and as being instigators of political turmoil. Attitude toward Foreign Media Government attitude toward foreign media is beset with distrust and accusations of foreign media personnel as conspirators and infiltrators inciting instability to destabilize the monarchy. International and local journalists who freelance for international press organizations and who criticize the monarchy for muzzling the press have been harassed, with some being deported. Broadcast Media The Swaziland Broadcasting and Information Service, broadcasting in English and Siswazi, and the only television station x2014 with seven hours of daily programming in English x2014 are both state-owned and under the Ministry of Information. The Swaziland Commercial Radio (Pty) Ltd South Africa-based commercial service to southern Africa broadcasts religious programs and music in English and Portuguese. Trans World Radio is a religious broadcast using five transmitters to broadcast in 30 languages to southern, east and central Africa and to the Far East. Electronic Media A privileged few urbanites have access to electronic news media through the Internet, fax, posts, telecommunications and a mobile cellular phone network. Swazilands posts and telecommunications network was completely automated in 1996, with digitalization in 1998 and optical fiber systems in key areas to increase trunk network capacity and efficiency. Several online news sites cover Swaziland, such as Swaziland Today and Xinhau News. Education x2014 Training Swazilands journalists and broadcasters have a variety of training background experiences with some being trained locally, and others in South Africa or other African nations and overseas. English, the language used in business, and Siswati are the official languages. Around 67 percent of the population over age 15 is literate. The only university, the University of Swaziland with more than 3,000 students, recently established an Institute of Distance Education. The monarchs tiny media press industry continues to face formidable problems. History clearly shows the kings relentless efforts to prevent freedom of the press under a pretext alleging that differing views and political parties are alien and divisive practices incompatible with Swazi culture. Recent disturbances, upheavals, strikes, and human rights concerns x2014 which have led to the regional and international involvement of several organizations, including Amnesty International x2014 indicate that freedom of media, expression and information are the cornerstone of democracy and fundamental human rights. Bibliography Gamble, Paul. Swaziland. In Economist Intelligence Unit Country Profile: Botswana and Lesoto (May 2002): 65-90. House Endorses Heavy Fines on Journalists. Media Institute of Southern Africa, November 7, 2001. Available from misanet.org. Maher, Joanne. Swaziland. In The Europa World Year Book. London: Europa Publications, 2, 2453-2465. Nhleko, Timothy. Newspaper Group Closes Down. Africa News Service, February 18, 2000. Press and Police at Loggerheads. Media Institute of Southern Africa, November 4, 2001. Available from misanet.org. Smith, Ron Baxter. Journalist Hauled Before Police Following Article. Africa News Service, January 17,2000. Available from cpj.orgprotests. State Police Warns Journalists to Stop Writing Negatively. Media Institute of Southern Africa, November 7, 2001. Available frommisanet.org. Swaziland. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In The World Factbook 2001. Available from cia.gov . Titus, Zoe. Internal Security Bill Before Parliament by end of Month. Media Institute of Southern Africa, June 6, 2002. Available from misanet.org. World Bank, World Development Indicators. Washington, DC, 2002. Swaziland (sw228180z275l259nd). officially Kingdom of Swaziland, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 1,174,000), 6,705 sq mi (17,366 sq km), SE Africa. It is bordered on the S, W, and N by the Republic of South Africa and on the E by Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Mbabane. The country is mountainous, with steplike plateaus descending from the highveld (3,50082115,000 ft1,06782111,524 m) in the W through the middleveld (1,50082113,000 ft4578211914 m) and the lowveld (50082111,500 ft1528211457 m), then rising to the rolling plateau of the Lebombo Mts. Swaziland is cut by four major river systems, which have vast hydroelectric potential and are increasingly used for irrigation. The population is about 97 African and 3 European. English and Siswati (a branch of Nguni) are the official languages. About 40 of the population is Zionist Christian (a blend of Christianity and indigenous beliefs), while 20 are Roman Catholic there are other Christian (Anglican, Methodist, and Mormon) groups, as well as Muslim, Bahai, and Jewish minorities. Swaziland has excellent farming and ranching land, and 80 of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture. Sugarcane is grown on plantations, mainly for export. Other important crops are cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus fruits, pineapples, sorghum, and peanuts. Cattle and goats are raised in large numbers. The Swazi engage primarily in subsistence farming on communally owned land that is allocated by chiefs. The pine and eucalyptus forests of the highveld yield timber and wood pulp. The country has several nature reserves, and tourism is being developed. Coal mining and stone quarrying are important Swazilands other mineral resources include asbestos, clay, cassiterite (tin ore), gold, and diamonds. Industry consists chiefly of food processing and the manufacture of soft drink concentrates, textiles, and consumer goods. Many Swazis are employed in South Africas mines and industries. Railroads connect with ports in South Africa, the countrys main trading partner, and with Mozambique. The countrys chief exports are soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus, and canned fruit. Imports include motor vehicles, machinery, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, and chemicals. A major portion of the governments income consists of revenues from the Southern African Customs Union. Swaziland is a hereditary monarchy governed under the constitution of 2005. The monarch is the head of state. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is appointed by the monarch. There is a bicameral Parliament ( Libandla ). The Senate has 30 members, 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 by the monarch. Of the 65 members of the House of Assembly, 10 are appointed by the monarch and 55 are elected by popular vote. Members of both houses serve five-year terms. Administratively, Swaziland is divided into four districts. The ancestors of the Swazi probably moved into the Mozambique area from the north prior to the 16th cent. Fleeing Zulu attacks in the early 19th cent. they settled in present-day Swaziland. During the 1800s, Europeans entered the area to seek concessions, and in 1894, Swaziland became a protectorate of the Transvaal. In 1906, Swaziland became a High Commission Territory ruled by a British commissioner. Limited self-government was not granted until 1963, and four years later Swaziland became a kingdom under a new constitution. On Sept. 6, 1968, Swaziland achieved complete independence but retained membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. The king became the head of state, administering through a cabinet and a prime minister chosen by parliament. In 1973, King Sobhuza II (reigned 1921821182) abrogated the constitution and assumed personal rule. The Swazi people continued to find a common cause in resistance to incorporation into South Africa, which was favored by the countrys Afrikaner minority. The original constitution was formally abolished in 1976. A new constitution was adopted in 1978, but it so diluted the vote that the king ruled nearly absolutely. In 1982, South Africa and Swaziland formally agreed to defend each others security interests, with Swaziland promising to deport African National Congress (ANC) members back to South Africa. After 61 years as monarch, Sobhuza died and Prince Makhosetive Dlamini was selected as his successor in 1982 he was crowned King Mswati III in 1986. The late 1980s were marked by periodic raids by South African troops searching for ANC dissidents operating from Swaziland. In 1992, severe drought conditions put Swaziland in danger of famine. During the 1990s a series of protest actions by prodemocracy dissidents put increasing pressure on the king. The countrys first parliamentary elections were held in 1993 (and have been held every five years since then), but candidates for the lower house have to be nonpartisan and are nominated by local councils (the upper house is largely appointed by the king). The early 21st cent. has seen increased pressure from opposition groups for limitation of the powers of the king, who has been criticized for abuse of power and personal indulgence, and for establishment of a democratically elected parliament, but the king has steadfastly resisted making any significant changes. A new constitution that the king approved in July, 2005, did not diminish the kings ultimate hold on power. The same month the African Unions human rights commission criticized Swaziland for failing to conform with the African Charter and gave the government six months to rectify the situation. The country suffered severe crop losses in 2007 due to drought an estimated 400,000 were expected to need food assistance before the next harvest (in 2008). Before elections for Swazilands parliament were held in Sept. 2008, prodemocracy forces mounted protests to little effect, despite negative publicity generated by the extravagant lifestyle of the king and his family. A recession-related drop in Southern African customs revenues in 2010 led to a government financial crisis late that year and continuing into subsequent years. The government sought a sizable loan from South Africa, but did not want to agree to the reform conditions attached to the loan the kings income was unaffected by the crisis. See C. P. Potholm, Swaziland: The Dynamics of Political Modernization (1972) B. Nyeko, Swaziland (1982) A. Booth, Swaziland (1984). Lilangeni 100 cents Small, landlocked, and mountainous kingdom in s Africa, bounded by South Africa ( n. w. s ) and Mozambique ( e ) the capital is Mbabane . Land and Climate Swaziland can be divided into four regions. In the w the Highveld, with an average height of 1200m (3950ft), makes up 30 of Swaziland. The Middleveld, 350x20131000m (1150x20133300ft), covers 28 of the country, while the Lowveld, with an average height of 270m (890ft), covers another 33. The Lebombo Mountains, the fourth region, reach 800m (2600ft) along the e border. The Lowveld is almost tropical, with an average temperature of 22xB0C (72xB0F) and a low rainfall of c. 500mm (20in) a year. The altitude moderates the climate in the w. and Mbabane has a climate typical of the Highveld with warm summers and cool winters. Vegetation Meadows and pasture cover c. 65 of Swaziland. Arable land covers 8 of the land, and forests only 6. History and Politics In the 18th century, according to tradition, a group of Bantu-speaking people, under the Swazi Chief Ngwane II, crossed the Lebombo range and united with local African groups to form the Swazi nation. In the 1840s, under attack from the Zulu, the Swazi sought British protection. Gold was discovered in the 1880s, and many Europeans sought land concessions from the King, who did not realize that in acceding to their demands he lost control of the land. In 1894, Britain and the Boers of South Africa agreed to put Swaziland under the control of the South African Republic (the Transvaal ). Britain took control of the country at the end of the second South African War (1899x20131902). In 1968, Swaziland became an independent constitutional monarchy, with King Sobhuza II as head of state. In 1973, Sobhuza suspended the constitution and assumed supreme power. In 1978, he banned all political parties. In 1982, Sobhuza died and his son, Makhosetive, was named heir. In 1986, he was installed as King Mswati III. In the early 1990s, pro-democracy demonstrations forced Mswati to reconsider the ban on political parties. Parliamentary elections were held in 1993 and 1998, but were non-party and not considered democratic. Swaziland is a lower-middle-income developing country (2000 GDP per capita, US4000). Agriculture employs 74 of the workforce, mostly at subsistence level. Farm products and processed foods, including sugar, wood pulp, citrus fruits and canned fruit, are the leading exports. Mining declined in importance in recent years. Swaziland exhausted its high-grade iron ore reserves in 1978, while the world demand for its asbestos fell. Swaziland depends heavily on South Africa, and the two nations are linked through a customs union. Political map Physical map Alternative Names Orientation Identification. The Swazi nation is named for Mswati II, who became king in 1839. The royal lineage can be traced to a chief named Dlamini this is still the royal clan name. About three-quarters of the clan groups are Nguni the remainder are Sotho and Tsonga. These groups have intermarried freely. There are slight differences among Swazi groups, but Swazi identity extends to all those with allegiance to the twin monarchs Ngwenyama the Lion (the king) and Ndlovukati the She-Elephant (the queen mother). Location and Geography. Swaziland, in southern Africa between Mozambique and South Africa. is a landlocked country of 6,074 square miles (17,360 square kilometers). The terrain is mostly mountainous with moderately sloping plains. The legislative capital is Lobamba, one of the traditional royal seats. The administrative capital is the nearby city of Mbabane. Manzini is the business hub. Demography. The population in 2000 is about 980,000. A small European population (about 3 percent) sometimes is called White Swazi. Linguistic Affiliation. The official languages are siSwati and English. SiSwati, a Southern Bantu language, is a member of the Nguni subgroup. Symbolism. The primary national symbol is the monarchy. King Sobhuza II (died 1982) oversaw the transition from colony to protectorate to independent country. The symbolic relationship between the king and his people is evident at the incwala . the most sacred ceremony, which may not be held when there is no king. The full ritual, which takes several weeks, symbolizes the acceptance of traditional rulers, the unity of the state, the agricultural cycle, fertility, and potency. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. The Nguni clans, which originated in East Africa in the fifteenth century, moved into southern Mozambique and then into present-day Swaziland the term abakwaNgwane (Ngwanes people) is still used as an alternative to emaSwati . Sobhuza I ruled during a period of chaos, resulting from the expansion of the Zulu state under Shaka. Under Sobhuzas leadership, the Nguni and Sotho peoples as well as remnant San groups were integrated into the Swazi nation. Swazi eventually was applied to all the peoples who gave allegiance to the Ngwenyama. National Identity. In the late 1830s, initial contact occurred among the Swazi, the Boers, and the British. A substantial portion of Swazi territory was ceded to the Transvaal Boers, the first of many concessions to European interests. The Pretoria Convention for the Settlement of the Transvaal in 1881 recognized the independence of Swaziland and defined its boundaries. The Ngwenyama was not a signatory, and the Swazi claim that their territory extends in all directions from the present state. More than a million ethnic Swazi reside in South Africa. Britain claimed authority over Swaziland in 1903, and independence was achieved in 1968. Ethnic Relations. Relations among the Swazi peoples have generally been peaceful. Relations with Europeans historically were strained as a result of land concessions and tension caused by the administrative domination of Great Britain . Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space The predominant home style is the Nguni bee-hive hut, in which a rounded frame made of poles is covered with thatch bound with plaited ropes. Sotho huts, which have pointed, detachable roofs on walls of mud and wattle, are found throughout the country these huts have window frames and full doorways. Both types can be found within a single homestead, which may also include European architectural styles. Traditional homestead organization follows the central cattle pattern. In the center of the homestead is an unroofed, fenced cattle pen, the sibaya . from which women are barred. Residential huts are grouped around the western side. The great hut, indlunkulu is used as the family shrine, dedicated to the senior patrilineal ancestors. Other huts are occupied by individual wives. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The traditional food supply fluctuated seasonally. Between winter and the new crops of summer, shortages were common. Maize and millet were the main staples. Dairy products, especially soured milk, were reserved for children. Cattle were slaughtered mainly for ritual purposes, and meat was in short supply. Leafy vegetables, roots, and fruits completed the traditional diet. The introduction of supermarkets means that meat and other products are available throughout the year. The Swazi typically observed a fish taboo, along with a taboo on egg consumption for females and a dairy taboo for wives. There were also clan-specific food taboos on particular birds and wild animals. Basic Economy. Subsistence agriculture is engaged in by more than half the population. Manufacturing includes a number of agroprocessing factories. Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are sources of hard currency most of these products go to South Africa. High-grade iron ore deposits were depleted in the 1970s and the demand for asbestos has fallen. Badly overgrazed pasture-land, soil depletion, and drought are persistent problems. Swaziland has an unemployment rate of 22 percent. Land Tenure and Property. All land was owned and allocated by the king through chiefs and headmen. Land not allocated to individuals remained under the control of the political authority and was reserved for common use, such as for firewood, reed collection, and hunting. Vast tracts of land that were under foreign control at independence have been purchased for the nation. Sons can inherit from their male kin. Commercial Activities. The major agricultural products are sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, citrus fruits, pineapples, corn, sorghum, and peanuts. ค้า Soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, and cotton yarn are the major export commodities. Most exports go to South Africa, and 20 percent are sent to the European Union. Motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, and chemicals are imported, mostly from South Africa. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. There is a sharp social division between rural and urban residents, reflecting the growth of the middle class. Clans are ranked by their relationship to the king and heads of state. The Nkosi Dlamini clan, the royal clan, is the highest, followed by clans traditionally described as Bearers of Kings (clans that have provided queen mothers). Among co-wives, the ranking wife is usually determined by clan memberships rather than by order of marriage. Interclan contact is free. Symbols of Social Stratification. Apart from dress, knowledge of English is the main marker of education and status. Political Life Government. The government is a monarchy, with the Ngwenyama functioning as the head of state. The prime minister is appointed by the king. The Westminster Constitution of 1968 was suspended by royal decree in 1973. A new constitution was written in 1978 but has not been ratified. A bicameral parliament with a Senate and a House of Assembly has only advisory functions. The judiciary includes a high court and a court of appeals whose judges are appointed. As a result of growing pressure from student and labor groups in late 2000, King Mswati III has promised to introduce democratic reforms. Leadership and Political Officials. Political parties are illegal, though some operate domestically and in exile. The most important is the Peoples United Democratic Movement, which calls for a peaceful transition to democracy and abandonment of the advisory system. Social Problems and Control. The legal system is based on South African law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts. Military Activity. The separation of the armed forces and the police is a modern distinction. Traditionally, both functions were performed by regiments in which every man was required to serve. The Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force and the Royal Swaziland Police are under civilian control. Gender Roles and Statuses Division of Labor by Gender. The queen mother serves as a check on the power of the king. In part, the selection of the royal heir is a selection of the next kings mother. Traditionally, men and women cooperated in the agricultural cycle, though only men were responsible for plowing. Women receive gardens from their husbands, but the cultivation of cash crops involves both men and women. Herding is exclusively a male domain. Cattle have important economic and symbolic value. Sex-based stratification characterizes the workforce, though a few women hold important civil service positions. The Relative Status of Men and Women. The traditional culture was patriarchal. Within the homestead, the only females related by blood to the patriarch were minor children. Their economic value was measured in lobolo (brideprice), usually in the form of cattle. Sons are valued more highly than daughters. Human rights groups have cited legal and cultural discrimination against women and abuse of children as social problems. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Marriage is defined as the union of two families. Polygynous marriages were once common, but the spread of Christianity and economic considerations have made them much less common today. The production of children is seen as an essential part of the marriage contract. Marriage between members of the same clan is forbidden this practice extends and maintains social ties. Subclans occasionally are created to facilitate marriage between members of the same clan. Divorce has increased as a result of urbanization. Since traditional marriage is governed by uncodified law and custom, womens rights are interpreted differently by different parties. Under civil law, a man is technically restricted to a single wife. Domestic Unit. In rural areas, patrilocal residence traditionally was the norm, and a homestead would include the headman, his wives, unmarried siblings, and married sons with their wives and children. With the exception of minor children, all females within the homestead are considered outsiders. Nuclear family residence is the norm in towns. Inheritance. Only males can inherit. The heir usually is not appointed until the fathers death. In traditional polygynous households, the main heir is rarely the oldest son. The rank of the mother, not the order of marriage, plays an important role in the selection of the main heir. Kin Groups. The clan is the major kin group. Every Swazi bears the clan name of the father, which also serves as a surname. Women retain membership in their paternal clan, though it is common for wives to use the husbands clan name as a surname. Each clan contains a number of lineages. Socialization Infant Care. Traditionally, infants were not recognized as persons until the third month of life. Before that age they were described as things, had no names, and could not be touched by men. After the achievement of personhood, a child remained closely attached to the mother. It was carried in a sling on her back and fed upon demand. Weaning occurred between two and three years of age. Child Rearing and Education. A child began to associate with peers at age three. The mother left the child in the care of other children. Discipline was introduced later. Young children played house and acted out adult kin roles. Today boys play with toy cars and motorbikes, and girls pretend to cook and groom each others hair. The traditional training of boys and girls required them to be separated from about age six. Boys needed to be hardened for public life, and so they were socialized by older youths and took care of livestock. Girls had greater freedom of movement, though much of their time was spent in domestic chores. Almost all children receive primary education today, although there is a significant dropout rate before age thirteen. Only about half the children of secondary school age attend school. Agricultural activities are a national priority, and relevant subjects are taught at many secondary schools. Higher Education. Several institutions provide technical, commercial, and vocational training. About three thousand students are enrolled at the University of Swaziland (UNISWA), which has three campuses. UNISWA has established a program of distance learning. Students seeking a postgraduate education often enroll in South Africa. Respect is due to ones elders. Traditionally, greeting all persons, including strangers, was a normal event this is no longer the case in towns. Religious Beliefs. Christianity is the predominant religion. In addition to the traditional Western forms, there are numerous syncretist churches, and indigenous beliefs about the supernatural, particularly regarding ancestors, are still important. Many people consult tinyanga (traditional healers), who employ natural medicine and ritual in their cures. There is a widespread belief in witchcraft and sorcery. Muti (medicine) murders in which persons are killed so that their body parts can be used for medicine are now uncommon. Religious Practitioners. Traditional religion has no class of ordained priests. The senior male in each family maintains communication with the ancestors. Diviners known as tangoma are considered more powerful than healers and are often possessed by spirits. Traditional healers are typically male. Rituals and Holy Places. The incwala is the major sacred ritual. Certain parts of the homestead are ritually protected the royal burial sites in the southern mountains are considered sacred. Death and the Afterlife. Swazi believe that the spirit of a person has a distinct existence. Ones social place is demonstrated through the elaborateness of funeral rituals. A head of household is buried at the sibaya his widow shaves her head and undertakes a long period of mourning. Medicine and Health Care Western medical care is available throughout the country. Many individuals seek treatment from both Western and indigenous practitioners. There is an extensive AIDS education campaign. Secular Celebrations The kings birthday is celebrated on 19 April, National Flag Day on 25 April, and Independence Day (Somhlolo Day) on 6 September. The Arts and Humanities Literature. Oral literature continues to flourish, and there is a small body of written literature in siSwati. State of the Physical and Social Sciences Little advanced work is done in the sciences, although several scientists work at UNISWA, which has established a research center. Bibliography Booth, Alan R. Swaziland: Tradition and Change in a Southern African Kingdom . 1983. De Vletter, Fion, ed. The Swazi Rural Homestead . 1983. Hall, James. Sangoma: My Odyssey into the Spirit World of Africa . 1994. Harrison, David. Tradition, Modernity and Tourism in Swaziland. In David Harrison, ed., Tourism and the Less Developed Countries . 1992. Kasenene, Peter. Religion in Swaziland . 1992. Kuper, Hilda. An African Aristocracy: Rank among the Swazi . 1947. x2014 x2014 . The Swazi: A South African Kingdom . 2nd ed. 1986. Marwick, Brian A. The Swazi . 1940. Matsebula, J. S. M. A History of Swaziland . 1987. McFadden, Patricia. The Condition of Women in Southern Africa: Challenges for the 1990s. Southern African Political and Economic Monthly 3 (10): 3 x2013 9, 1990. Nyeko, Balam. Swaziland . 1994. Rose, Laurel L. The Politics of Harmony: Land Dispute Strategies in Swaziland . 1992. Simelane, Nomthetho G. ed. Social Transformation: The Swaziland Case . 1995. x2014 Robert K. Herbert Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The Oxford Companion to British History xA9 The Oxford Companion to British History 2002, originally published by Oxford University Press 2002. Swaziland. Former British high commission territory. In the 19th cent. the Bantu kingdom of Swaziland was under intermittent threat from Zulus, from would-be Boer (Afrikaner) settlers, and from British administrators in Natal. In 1906, along with Botswana and Lesotho it was placed under the jurisdiction of a British high commissioner. When the Union of South Africa was created in 1910 the three territories were excluded from its authority because of British qualms about the Unions racial policy, which subsequent events were to justify. Nevertheless, Swaziland relied heavily upon its economic contacts with South Africa, which were strengthened after the country became independent in 1968. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language xA9 Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language 1998, originally published by Oxford University Press 1998. SWAZILAND. A country in southern Africa, between South Africa and Mozambique. and a member of the COMMONWEALTH. Languages: Siswati or SiSwati (also known as Swazi, the Zulu form of the name) and English (both official). The Swazi occupied the territory in the early 19c, in competition with the Boers. Their autonomy was guaranteed by Britain. but the territory was administered by the Boer province of Transvaal until 1903, when it came under the British governor of Transvaal, then a province of the Union of South Africa. Independence was gained in 1968. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.Thomas Bulkowski8217s successful investment activities allowed him to retire at age 36. He is an internationally known author and trader with 30 years of stock market experience and widely regarded as a leading expert on chart patterns. เขาอาจจะไปถึงไซต์สนับสนุนคลิกลิงก์ (ด้านล่าง) เพื่อพาคุณไปที่ Amazon หากคุณซื้ออะไรที่พวกเขาจ่ายสำหรับการอ้างอิง Bulkowskis Books Book Corrections Below, if you click on a book picture, it will take you to Amazon for browsing and buying. Anything purchased at Amazon through this website (by clicking on a book link) helps support this site. Which Book Should I Buy I am often asked what is the difference between my books, and which one should I buy first Heres the answer. Focus: Shows how stocks typically behave after a chart pattern appears. My book, Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns is to human anatomy as Chart Patterns: After the Buy is to human behavior. Chart Patterns: After the Buy shows how a stock acts after a chart pattern appears, so we can use that knowledge before buying to boost the odds of trading success. It covers chart patterns, but from a different perspective than all of my other books. Read an excerpt on double bottoms from the book (pdf: 1.58 mb). This book is meant as a reference. Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Focus: Candlesticks and their performance. This book is the definitive reference book covering 103 candlestick patterns. This is one of the few candlestick books that tests each candle pattern and reports on that performance in a clear and concise manner. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns .Focus: The internals of chart patterns. This is a definitive (and popular) reference book on chart patterns, reviewing 53 chart and 10 event patterns packed with performance information, identification guidelines, failure rates, breakout statistics, size and height stats, volume stats, trading tactics, and more. It peaked at 5 in Australia at Amazon. Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading: Evolution of a Trader Focus: Value investing. A primer about value investing (PE and PSR ratios, book value, cash flow, dividends, and so on) and adding market timing to a buy-and-hold strategy using position trading. I test each of the fundamentals to see how they perform. The book tells what to look for when selecting stocks to double your money and to find 10-baggers (stocks that rise by 10 times the investment). Getting Started in Chart Patterns Focus: Chart pattern information and trading the stock market for beginners. This book is a popular, low cost choice for both the novice and expert trader wishing to tune-up the basics. Written as a narrative (not a reference book), it discusses chart patterns and includes details on many of my trades, so you can get a feel for how I use chart and event patterns. This book is more advanced than the Visual Guide to Chart Patterns described below. Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader . Focus: Swing and day trading. The book explains how to use chart patterns to swing and day trade, including major reversal times for day traders, plus the opening range breakout and opening gap setups. This book zeros in on the shorter time scales. It also includes a chapter on horror stories, which is an interesting read all by itself. I interview traders and discuss their botched trades. Trading Basics: Evolution of a Trader . Focus: Information youll need when trading or investing in the stock market. This book covers subjects like how much money youll need for tradinginvesting, position sizing, scaling in and out of positions, leverage, dollar cost averaging, portfolio composition, how long to hold a stock, with entire chapters dedicated to stop placement, and support amp resistance. It has a chapter on 45 tips every trader should know. This book tests each idea to see how well it performs and provides an in-depth look at what you need to invest and trade stocks. Trading Classic Chart Patterns .Focus: a scoring system for chart patterns. The book introduces a scoring system to help you select the most popular chart patterns that lead to big gains. Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Focus: A beginners guide to chart patterns This book is an entry level guide to chart patterns, taking you from how to recognize them, what are minor highs and lows, constructing trendlines (Part I), and into the many varieties of chart patterns (part II), ending with buy setups (part III) and sell signals (part IV). This narrative book has lots of color charts and also includes quizzes, which are difficult but fun to take. One Testimonial Heres a testimonial thats worth reading not for what he says about my books (which is nice) but about his success trading the markets. Dear Mr. Bulkowski, Im a 22-year old college student and an options trader. For the last year and four months, before June, I virtually traded options at real time, turning one hundred thousand into five million. Then, at the beginning of the summer, I opened my first real money account, and have made a little less than 1,200 on my account, never having more than 30 of my entire account invested at one time, never having more than 15 in one stock (now no more than 10, eventually Ill get it down to having no more than 5). I got started in charts with Getting Started in Chart Patterns . I followed that book with Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . and followed that with Trading Classic Chart Patterns . with the recommendations listed on Dan Zangers site. I loved those books so much that I bought Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts . since Im a fan of charts. I was amazed at how much I had already figured out. You put names to what I was just observing and statistics that made me even more profitable. I keep both your encyclopedias next to my computer while I go over my stocks ever night, and I see a break out. My parents are mad at you because now they cant claim me on their taxes this year. Just kidding, I bought my dad the boat he always wanted because they matched my account which gave me a few extra dollars to play with. I hope your trading is doing well and your doing well. Thank You So Much. Your Books Are Awesome. Chart Patterns: After the Buy I looked at thousands of chart patterns to discover how they behaved after placing a trade. Then I used that knowledge to help predict which chart patterns would outperform. The book covers the most popular chart patterns but also other seldom-discussed patterns, too. View a chapter excerpt on double bottoms (pdf: 1.58 mb) by clicking the link, courtesy of John Wiley amp Sons. Chart Patterns: After the Buy Table of Contents Heres what Amazon has to say. Chart Patterns: After the Buy goes beyond simple chart pattern identification to show what comes next. Author and stock trader Thomas Bulkowski is one of the industrys most respected authorities in technical analysis for this book, he examined over 43,000 chart patterns to discover what happens after you buy the stock. His findings are detailed here, to help you select better buy signals, avoid disaster, and make more money. Bulkowski analyzed thousands of trades to identify common paths a stock takes after the breakout from a chart pattern. By combining those paths, he discovered the typical routes a stock takes, which he calls configurations. Match your chart to one of those configurations and you will know, before you buy . how your trade will likely perform. Now you can avoid potentially disastrous trades to focus on the big winners. Each chapter illustrates the behavior of a specific pattern. Identification guidelines help even beginners recognize common patterns, and expert analysis sheds light on the period of the stocks behavior that actually affects your investment. Youll discover ideal buy and sell setups, how to set price targets, and more, with almost 370 charts and illustrations to guide you each step of the way. Coverage includes the most common and popular patterns, but also the lesser-known ones like bad earnings surprises, price mirrors, price mountains, and straight-line runs. Whether youre new to chart patterns or an experienced professional, this book provides the insight you need to select better trades. Identify chart patterns Select better buy signals Predict future behavior Learn the best stop locations Knowing the pattern is one thing, but knowing how often a stop will trigger and how often you can expect a stock to reach its target price is another matter entirely-and it impacts your trade performance immensely. Chart Patterns: After the Buy is the essential reference guide to using chart patterns effectively throughout the entire life of the trade. Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition Chart pattern analysis is not only one of the most important investing tools, but also one of the most popular. Filled with expert insights and practical advice from one of the best in the business, Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition helps new and seasoned traders alike profit by tracking and identifying specific chart patterns. Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition of the popular guide now includes additional charts for ETFs and mutual funds. It introduces more than 40 key chart formations, as well as trading tactics that can be used in conjunction with them. It supplies actual trades (with dollar amounts), along with author Thomas Bulkowskis frank discussion of how trading behavior can affect the bottom line. Interwoven throughout the technical presentations are fascinating anecdotes drawn from the authors quarter-century as a professional trader that vividly demonstrate how one of the best in the business leverages the power of chart patterns. Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition Table of Contents Preface to First and Second Editions Acknowledgments Testimonial I started out in late 2003 with 123,000 in our multiple IRA accounts. My results, focusing exclusively on the Precious Mining Junior Exploration Companies, really took off AFTER I read your Getting Started in Chart Patterns book. By March 2006, our IRA accounts had exceeded 1,000,000. Your explanations of Support amp Resistance Fibonacci retracements and High, Tight Flag formations really paid off -- email from Rich K. of California Endorsements (from the book cover): When it comes to chart reading, Thomas Bulkowski can be categorized as a sui generis (constituting a class alone). Combining objective analysis with a fictional element has resulted in a highly entertaining read, one that any trader will benefit from. Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan, Editor of Technical Analysis of Stocks amp Commodities magazine. Nobody explains the nuts and bolts of how - exactly - to use chart patterns to make real money in trading like Tom Bulkowski. I always do better in my own trading after reading a Bulkowski book. This is the practical, down-to-earth guidance you have been looking for in books on technical analysis. Bulkowski doesnt give you platitudes - he gives you live examples. Even better, he admits that patterns dont always deliver what we expect and he quantifies both success and failure rates for the top moneymaking patterns. Nobody writes about chart work better than Bulkowski. - Barbara Rockefeller, independent trader and advisor (rts-forex), author of Technical Analysis for Dummies. In Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Bulkowski offer easy-to-apply advice for looking at charts and making them work more effectively for you in your trading. It is his passion it probably also will become yours after reading this book. A must for budding technicians - Gail Osten, Executive Editor of Stocks, Futures amp Options (SFO) magazine. Trading Basics: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with the inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Trading Basics The first book in the Evolution of a Trader series begins with the basics, creating a solid foundation of terms and techniques. Although you may understand market basics, you will learn from this book. How do I know Take this quiz. If you have to guess at the answers, then you need to buy this book. If you get some of them wrong, then imagine what you are missing. Answers are at the end of the quiz. From Chapter 2, Money Management 1. True or false: Trading a constant position size can have disastrous results. 2. True or false: A market order to cancel a buy can be denied if it is within two minutes of the Nasdaqs open. 3. True or false: Dollar cost averaging underperforms. From Chapter 3: Do Stops Work 1. True or false: Fibonacci retracements offer no advantage over any other number as a turning point. 2. True or false: A chandelier stop hangs off the high price. 3. True or false: Stops cut profit more than they limit risk. From Chapter 4: Support and Resistance 1. True or false: Peaks with below average volume show more resistance. 2. True or false: Support gets stronger over time. 3. True or false: The middle of a tall candle is no more likely to show support or resistance than any other part. From Chapter 5: 45 Tips Every Trader Should Know 1. True or false: Fibonacci extensions are no more accurate than any other tool for determining where price might reverse. 2a True or false: Only bullish divergence (in the RSI indicator) works and only in a bull market. 2b. True or false: Bullish divergence (in the RSI indicator) fails to beat the market more often than it works. 3. True or false: Price drops faster than it rises. From Chapter 6: Finding and Fixing What Is Wrong 1. True or false: The industry trend is more important than the market trend. 2. True or false: Holding a trade too long is worse than selling too early. 3. True or false: Sell in May and go away. The answer to every statement is true. Trading Basics Table of Contents Chapter 1: How to Retire at 36 Chapter 2: Money Management Trading: How Much Money, Honey Order Types: Read The Fine Print Position Sizing: My Story Position Sizing by Market Condition: Bull or Bear How Many Stocks to Hold A Better Way Portfolio Composition Hold Time: How Long is Long Enough Hold Time: My Trades The Money Management Matrix Should You Scale Into Positions Averaging Down: Throwing Away Money or Smart Choice Scaling Out of Positions: A Profitable Mistake Dollar-Cost-Averaging: Good or Bad Using Leverage: An Expensive Lesson Leverage Guidelines Checklist Chapter 3: Do Stops Work What Is Hold Time Loss Mental Stop: For Professionals Only Minor High or Low Stop: A Good Choice Squaring Off Round Numbers Chart Pattern Stop: Too Costly Stopped by a Moving Average The Truth about Trendlines Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with t he inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Fundamental Analysis This book explains and describes the test results of various fundamental factors such as book value, price-to-earnings ratio, and so on, to see how important they are to stock selection and performance. The Fundamental Analysis Summary chapter provides tables of fundamental factors based on hold times of one, three, and five years that shows which factor is most important to use for those anticipated hold times. The tables provide a handy reference for buy-and-hold investors or for other trading styles that wish to own a core portfolio of stocks based on fundamental analysis. Chapters such as How to Double Your Money, Finding 10-Baggers, and Trading 10-Baggers put the fundamentals to work. The chapter titled Selling Buy-and-Hold helps solve the problem of when to sell long-term holdings. Position Trading The second part of the book explores position trading. It introduces market timing to help remove the risk of buying and holding a stock for years. Have you heard the phrase, Trade with the trend How often does a stock follow the market higher or lower The section titled, What is Market Influence on Stocks provides the answer. This part of the book looks at how chart patterns can help with position trading. It discloses the 10 most important factors that make chart patterns work and then blends them into a scoring system. That system can help you become a more profitable position trader when using chart patterns. Six actual trades are discussed to show how position trading works and when it does not. Consider them as roadmaps that warn when the road is bumpy and when the market police are patrolling. Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Buy and Hold What Is Buy and Hold Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with the inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Swing Trading The last book of the three covers Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader . The first part of the book highlights swing trading techniques, explains how to use chart patterns to swing trade, swing selling, event patterns (common stock offerings, trading Dutch auction tender offers, earnings releases, rating changes, and so on) and other trading setups. It tears apart a new tool called the chart pattern indicator. The indicator is not a timing tool, but a sentiment indicator that is great at calling major market turns. Day Trading Day trading reviews the basics including home office setup, cost of day trading, day trading chart patterns, and the opening range breakout. It discusses research into the major reversal times each day and what time of the day is most likely to set the days high and low-valuable information to a day trader. An entire chapter discusses the opening gap setup and why fading the gap is the best way to trade it. Another chapter discusses the opening range breakout setup and questions whether it works. Ten horror stories from actual traders complete the series. They have been included to give you lasting nightmares. Swing and Day Trading Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Swing Trading Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Visual Guide to Chart Patterns is a concise and accessible visual guide to identifying, understanding, and using chart patterns to predict the direction and extent of price moves. Packed with visual learning enhancements and exercises, this innovative book helps savvy investors and professionals alike master the essential skills of chart pattern recognition. Follow along as chart pattern expert Thomas Bulkowski teaches you to recognize important peaks and valleys that form patterns-footprints of the smart money. Nearly 200 color charts assist in providing a step-by-step approach to finding those footprints, interpreting them, and following them. Popular patterns such as head-and-shoulders, double tops and bottoms, triangles, gaps, flags, and pennants are just a few of the many patterns explored throughout the book. For the sophisticated trader or investor, the book also provides statistical research to support the claims of pattern behavior, trading signals, and setups, in an easy to understand way. Discusses chart pattern identification guidelines, psychology, variations, failures, and buy and sell signals Covers the most popular and common chart patterns as well as lesser-known ones like throwbacks, pullbacks, and busted patterns Incorporates quizzes, step-by-step exercises, enhanced graphics and video tutorials (e-book only) to immerse the reader in the world of chart patterns Designed for use by investors and traders, from beginners to experts looking for a practical, easy-to-use guide, comprehensive reference, Bloomberg Visual Guide to Chart Patterns provides a sophisticated introduction to the world of chart patterns. The following is a detailed table of contents that lists major topics covered in the book. This was taken from my manuscript and not from the published text. Some of the content may be different in the published version. Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Table of Contents Part 1: The Basics Chapter 1: Pattern Recognition Made Easy Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Before I get to the slick marketing message, let me give you a few examples of how I use the information in my Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts book. Imagine that price has been trending upward for 5 bars and you see a bearish engulfing candle pattern. Looking up the candle in the book, you read that it acts as a bearish reversal 79 of the time (page 308), and that 74 of the time (page 312) price reaches its price target (the height of the candle projected downward). If you then see price begin to falter, like it is thinking of reversing, you can exit the trade ahead of everyone else. Before I make a trade, I look at the probability of the candle acting as a reversal or continuation, and how far price can be expected to move once I am in the trade (based on the candle height). That information is in my book, and it is well worth the cost of it. Let me give you another example. For Apple stock (AAPL) on November 13, 2007, I found an above the stomach candle. The book says (page 89) that the candle acts as a bullish reversal 66 of the time. The upward target is 183.39 with a 61 probability of reaching 191.33 (page 93). A downward target is 139.84 with a 53 probability of reaching 130.28. The current close is 169.96. After a bumpy start, the stock moved up in a straight-line run to 187.70 on November 30, 2007 before pausing for a few days. That is the kind of information you can get from my book, and that is how I put it to good use. It gives me an edge over other traders that do not have such information. In short, it helps me make money. Here is the slick marketing message: Candlestick patterns are footprints of the smart money and deciphering those footprints properly can bring traders and investors riches. Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts takes an in-depth look at 103 candlesticks, from identification guidelines, to statistical analysis of their behavior, to detailed trading tactics. Never before has a book combined a comprehensive list of candlesticks with a statistical review of their performance. until now. This easy to read and use reference book follows the same format as the best-selling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns. In each chapter of Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts youll find: Behavior and Rank shows how each candle is theoretically supposed to work and how it actually does, with rankings against other candlesticks plus the psychology behind the pattern. Identification Guidelines describe what to look for. Statistics include the following tables: general statistics, height statistics, volume stats, reversal rates, and performance indicators. Trading Tactics discuss strategies to increase profits and minimize risk Sample Trade walks you through a hypothetical or actual trade using real data. For Best Performance is a quick reference table of selection tips to boost performance Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts also includes chapters covering important findings, a statistics summary, glossarymethodology, and a visual index to make candlestick identification easy. Endorsements (from the book cover): Great research, great organization, and a wealth of information. Not only does Tom identify the best formations, he shows the practical way to trade each one. And, he puts the best results right in front, rather than playing hide-and-seek with the reader. You dont need to be a chartist to get value from this book. I highly recommend it. -- Perry Kaufman, author of New Trading Systems and Methods, Fourth Edition Man cannot live on bread alone, and according to Tom Bulkowskis research, one cannot trade by candlesticks alone. Toms intensive statistical work seeks out the truth in the frequency and reliability of trading with candlestick charts. His exhaustive and thorough research will give the reader an eye opener to help guide them in their trading decisions. This is a must-read edition of a high-caliber piece of trading literature for every trader who uses candlecharts. -- John Person, author of Candlestick and Pivot Point Trading Triggers and President of Nationalfutures. When I wrote the Third Edition of Candlestick Charting Explained . I believed I had thoroughly covered every aspect of this respectable analysis technique. Tom has written a solid reference that can easily be used in coordination with other books in this exciting field. The Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts is a reference that every technical analyst will want to own. -- Gregory L. Morris, Senior Portfolio Manager, PMFM, Inc, and author of Candlestick charting explained, third edition and The Complete Guide to Market Breadth Indicators. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Second Edition In this revised and expanded second edition of the bestselling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Thomas Bulkowski updates the classic with new performance statistics for both bull and bear markets and 23 new patterns, including a second section devoted to ten event patterns. Bulkowski tells you how to trade the significant events -- such as quarterly earnings announcements, retail sales, stock upgrades and downgrades -- that shape todays trading and uses statistics to back up his approach. This comprehensive new edition is a must-have reference if youre a technical investor or trader. From the Inside Flap The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . recognized as the premier reference on chart pattern analysis, extends its lead with this Second Edition. This definitive text includes new bull and bear market statistics, performance sorted by volume shape and trend, more than a dozen additional chart patterns, and a new section covering ten event patterns. Significant events-such as earnings announcements, stock upgrades and downgrades-shape todays trading, and Bulkowski gives readers the best information on what happens after those events occur. He also shows you how to trade them and uses reliable statistics to back it all up. In each chapter of Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Second Edition youll learn the following about each pattern: Results Snapshot -A statistical summary of pattern behavior, including its performance rank, break even failure rate, average rise or decline-all separated by breakout direction and market type (bull or bear) Tour -A broad introduction to the pattern Identification Guidelines -Characteristics to look for Focus on Failures -What failed patterns look like, why they failed, and how to avoid them Statistics -The numbers and what they tell you, separated into bullbear markets and breakout direction, including average rise or decline, failure rates, volume shapes, performance by size, and busted pattern performance Trading Tactics -Strategies to increase profits and minimize risk Sample Trade -Puts it all together, showing the chart pattern in action, with hypothetical or actual trades using real data For Best Performance -A table of selection tips to boost performance Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Second Edition also includes summary tables ranking chart- and event-pattern performance for easy reference a glossary a chapter on methodology explaining what each statistical table entry means and how it was calculated and a visual index to make chart pattern identification a snap. The result is todays most comprehensive and valuable technical analysis reference-one that will save you critical time in identifying chart patterns and increase your likelihood of buying near the price bottom and selling near the top. This book was named one of the years top investment books in 2003 by Stock Traders Almanac 2003 (page 98). The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns has been cited in Candlesticks, Fibonacci, and Chart Pattern Trading Tools by Robert Fischer and Jens Fischer ( pages 88-89, 107), Technical Analysis for Dummies by Barbara Rockefeller ( pages 154 - 165), Advanced Options Pricing Models, by Jeffrey Katz and Donna McCormick (page 382) and many other titles (Amazon has the full list). The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns is available in Orthodox Chinese and German, Russian, French and Simplified Chinese translations are pending. Amazon has a 8220search inside the book8221 where you can look at the table of contents, view an excerpt, and do a search. Endorsements (from the book cover): The most complete reference to chart patterns available. It goes where no one has gone before. Bulkowski gives hard data on how good and bad the patterns are. A must-read for anyone thats ever looked at a chart and wondered what was happening. -- Larry Williams, trader and author of Long-Term Secrets to Short-Term Trading. Chart patterns are the basics behind most trading methods, and this book is a great achievement in a highly useful format. Bulkowski has taken an intelligent and thoughtful approach to producing a practical guide to understanding and trading chart formations. -- Perry Kaufman, author of New Trading Systems and Methods, Fourth Edition and A Short Course in Technical Trading. Praise for the first edition Not since Edwards and Magee has someone put together so comprehensive an assemblage of market behavior expressed graphically. No chartist should be without this book. -- John Sweeney, Interim Editor Technical Analysis of Stocks amp Commodities. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . is a valuable contribution to the existing literature on charting and should be considered an indispensable reference by any serious chart trader. -- Edward D. Dobson, President, Traders Press, Inc. Meticulously researched, complete, and insightful, the Encyclopedia has earned a permanent place on my trading desk as a highly valued resource. -- Thomas A. Bierovic, Manager, Strategy Testing amp Development, Omega Research, Inc. Trading Classic Chart Patterns Trading Classic Chart Patterns is a combination narrative and reference book (mostly reference). This book was named 8220The best investment book of the year8221 by Stock Traders Almanac 2003 (see page 94 of that book). Trading Classic Chart Patterns has been cited in Candlesticks, Fibonacci, and Chart Pattern Trading Tools by Robert Fischer and Jens Fischer (Wiley 2003, pages 88-89). Translations into Simplified Chinese and German are pending. In his follow-up to the well-received Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Thomas Bulkowski gives traders a practical game plan to capitalize on established chart patterns. Written for the novice investor but with techniques for the professional, Trading Classic Chart Patterns includes easy-to-use performance tables, vivid case studies, and a scoring system that makes trading chart patterns simple. This comprehensive guide skillfully gives investors straightforward solutions to profitably trading chart patterns. Trading Classic Chart Patterns also serves as a handy reference guide for favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and double and triple bottoms. Filled with numerous techniques, strategies, and insights, Trading Classic Chart Patterns fits perfectly into any pattern traders arsenal. From the Inside Flap From the author of the Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns comes his latest work, Trading Classic Chart Patterns, a groundbreaking primer on how to trade the most popular stock patterns. Written for the novice investor but containing techniques for the seasoned professional, this comprehensive guide includes easy-to-use performance tables supported by statistical research. By using a simple scoring system, youll learn how to predict the performance of a chart pattern almost by looking at it. If youre new to chart patterns, technical analysis, or to stock market investing itself, the Getting Started section provides new ideas on trendlines, support and resistance, placing stops, and avoiding common investment mistakes. As your trading knowledge and experience increase, the Trading Classic Chart Patterns section will serve as a handy reference guide for your favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and triple tops and bottoms. Youll quickly learn about the Adam-and-Eve combinations of double tops and bottoms, and how to select the best performers while avoiding the losers. How to use the price trend leading to a chart pattern as a gauge of future performance Why breakout gaps often improve performance-but by less than you think How tall formations perform substantially better than short ones What a partial decline is and how to buy in early for a larger profit Whether high breakout volume really improves performance How to identify horizontal consolidation regions that may stop prices dead in their tracks A new tool, called the horizon failure rate, to assess performance over time The scoring system makes trading chart patterns simple. Use the performance tables to score your stock pattern, then add up the scores. If they total above zero, the stock is an investment candidate if they are below zero, youll know to avoid that particular stock. Its that easy Trading Classic Chart Patterns is a traders reference thats destined to become a classic. This book is an invaluable resource that provides the obvious answer-Yes-for every investor who has wondered if trading chart patterns can be profitable. Endorsements (from the book cover): No one -- not even the pioneers of technical analysis like Dow, Schabacker, Edwards, and Magee -- has ever published such an in-depth and objective research on chart patterns as Thomas Bulkowski has in his Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns and his new book, Trading Classic Chart Patterns. Bulkowski sees farther, not only because he stands on the shoulders of those giants, but also because he has the creativity necessary to develop new methods of quantifying the performance of chart patterns and the tenacity required to carry out the laborious research. Highly recommended -- Thomas A. Bierovic, author Playing for Keeps in Stocks amp Futures: Three Top Trading Strategies That Consistently Beat the Markets Book Corrections The publisher corrects the books as new printings occur (in theory). If you find a mistake, then contact me, Tom Bulkowski. Chart Patterns: After the Buy The following figures have incorrect figure references. For example, Figure 1.18 refers to figures in chapter 2 when it should refer to chapter 1. Heres a list of the figures that need correction: 1.18, 2.18, 3.20, 4.23, 5.18, 6.15, 8.14, 9.20, 10.15, 15.21, 17.10, 18.10, 22.24, 23.26, 24.21 Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Page 11: Change chart patterns to candlesticks in the first paragraph, second sentence: The percentage of chart patterns with breakouts within a third of the designated. should read, The percentage of candlesticks with breakouts within a third of the designated. Fix the last two paragraphs by swapping the phrases, overhead resistance with underlying support. Find: Gaps in an uptrend (rising window): Price finds overhead resistance and replace with: Gaps in an uptrend (rising window): Price finds underlying support In the last paragraph, find, Gaps in a downtrend (falling window): Price finds underlying support and replace with, Gaps in a downtrend (falling window): Price finds overhead resistance Page 182, two lines below Behavior and Rank heading: Change 60 of th time to Change 60 of the time Page 407: change the Figure 46.2 caption from bearish to bullish harami cross. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, 2nd Edition Page 28: Short-term bearish reversal should be Short-term bullish continuation Page 29: Short-term bearish continuation should be Short-term bearish reversal Page 111: Table 6.8 under Trade the trend lines. In the first sentence, change broad to tall so it should read If the formation is especially tall. Page 111: Find Trade the trend lines stops. highlighted near the bottom of the page. Change wide, to tall, so it should read If the formation is especially tall. Page 138: Second line at the top. Change 30 and 60 to 30 degrees and 60 degrees. It should read, The slope of the price trend line should rise from about 30 degrees at the start to 60 degrees or higher. Page 143, under Width. Replace the word tall with wide as in Narrow patterns perform better than wide ones in a bull market. Page 196. Change Surprising Findings to Throwbacks hurt performance and so do breakout day gaps. Page 197. Change Surprising Findings to Pullbacks hurt performance and so do breakout day gaps. Page 235. Third paragraph from the top, find only 15 times in this study and change it to 18 times. Change 383 in the following sentence to 371. Page 248, Table 15.1, Breakout volume. Change Heavy to Light as in Light breakout volume is best. Page 248, bottom of page, Breakout volume. Change the sentence to read, Look for light breakout volume but do not discard an EADB just because the breakout occurs on above-average volume. Two changes were made to the sentence, the words heavy to light and below to above. Page 253, in Average formation length, change a month to 2 months. Page 268, in Formation end to breakout. Change Measured from the left bottom to Measured from the right bottom Page 347, Text for the example says the winloss ratio is 4.75 to 1 but its actually less because of the entry price (the bottom of the flag). That lowers the profit potential and raises the risk, so the ratio is narrower. If you forget about the ratio, the method of calculating a price target (the measure rule) is correct. Page 369, under Percentage closed. Change as do downward breakouts in a bear market to bull market. Page 376 to 388, even numbered pages, the header should read Head-and-Shoulders Bottoms not Heads. Page 379, line 4 down from the top. Change by signal sooner to buy signal sooner. Page 406 to 436, even numbered pages, the header should read Head-and-Shoulders not Heads. Page 515 under Reversal or continuation in the Statistics section. Change pattern on exit to pattern or exit. Page 532, third line down from the top. Change about a week shorter to about a week longer. Page 627, Table 41.1, Width. Change trend to tend as in Scallops tend to be wider. Page 668. Change 5 to 10 in the line, With a breakout price of 21.11 and a target of 19, is a 5 decline. Page 693. Swap Wide and narrow in the paragraph that begins Width. Wide patterns perform better than narrow ones. Page 731. Change higher to lower in surprising findings table as in Heavy breakout volume helps push prices LOWER. Page 756: swap 164 and 197 in Table 49.2. It should read: 197 R and 164 C Page 761, Table 49.8, measure rule. Change highest high to breakout price as in . add the difference to the breakout price or for downward breakouts. Page 902: Table 59.5 is wrong. Here is the corrected table. Page 950, page bottom: Short-term bearish continuation should be Short-term bearish reversal Page 970. Break-even failure rate rank for Rectangle Bottoms, down breakout. Rank should be 14, not 15. And change Rectangles to Rectangle. Overall Rank changes from 12 to 11 and the others move up by 1 through Island Reversals, down breakout (which has an overall rank of not 21 but 20). Page 972, about a third of the way down. Change Cup with Handdle to Cup with Handle. Getting Started in Chart Patterns Page 23, second bullet item down from the top. Should read Expect a larger price rise not decline. Page 218, Broadening Formation, Right-Angled and Ascending picture in the lower left. Ignore the arrow. Page 219, Table 9.3. Change -50 to 50. Page 219, Paragraph immediately below Table 9.3. Change downward breakouts, to upward breakouts, Trading Classic Chart Patterns Page 63, Table 3.3. Change Percentage above Breakout Price to Percentage above or below Breakout Price Page 164, Table 8.15. Third column, Adam amp Adam should be Eve amp Adam Written by and copyright copy 2005-2017 by Thomas N. Bulkowski. สงวนลิขสิทธิ์. ข้อจำกัดความรับผิดชอบ: คุณมีส่วนรับผิดชอบต่อการตัดสินใจลงทุนของคุณ ดูข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมที่ PrivacyDisclaimer Books: The original laptop.Thomas Bulkowski8217s successful investment activities allowed him to retire at age 36. He is an internationally known author and trader with 30 years of stock market experience and widely regarded as a leading expert on chart patterns. เขาอาจจะไปถึงไซต์สนับสนุนคลิกลิงก์ (ด้านล่าง) เพื่อพาคุณไปที่ Amazon หากคุณซื้ออะไรที่พวกเขาจ่ายสำหรับการอ้างอิง Bulkowskis Books Book Corrections Below, if you click on a book picture, it will take you to Amazon for browsing and buying. Anything purchased at Amazon through this website (by clicking on a book link) helps support this site. Which Book Should I Buy I am often asked what is the difference between my books, and which one should I buy first Heres the answer. Focus: Shows how stocks typically behave after a chart pattern appears. My book, Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns is to human anatomy as Chart Patterns: After the Buy is to human behavior. Chart Patterns: After the Buy shows how a stock acts after a chart pattern appears, so we can use that knowledge before buying to boost the odds of trading success. It covers chart patterns, but from a different perspective than all of my other books. Read an excerpt on double bottoms from the book (pdf: 1.58 mb). This book is meant as a reference. Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Focus: Candlesticks and their performance. This book is the definitive reference book covering 103 candlestick patterns. This is one of the few candlestick books that tests each candle pattern and reports on that performance in a clear and concise manner. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns .Focus: The internals of chart patterns. This is a definitive (and popular) reference book on chart patterns, reviewing 53 chart and 10 event patterns packed with performance information, identification guidelines, failure rates, breakout statistics, size and height stats, volume stats, trading tactics, and more. It peaked at 5 in Australia at Amazon. Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading: Evolution of a Trader Focus: Value investing. A primer about value investing (PE and PSR ratios, book value, cash flow, dividends, and so on) and adding market timing to a buy-and-hold strategy using position trading. I test each of the fundamentals to see how they perform. The book tells what to look for when selecting stocks to double your money and to find 10-baggers (stocks that rise by 10 times the investment). Getting Started in Chart Patterns Focus: Chart pattern information and trading the stock market for beginners. This book is a popular, low cost choice for both the novice and expert trader wishing to tune-up the basics. Written as a narrative (not a reference book), it discusses chart patterns and includes details on many of my trades, so you can get a feel for how I use chart and event patterns. This book is more advanced than the Visual Guide to Chart Patterns described below. Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader . Focus: Swing and day trading. The book explains how to use chart patterns to swing and day trade, including major reversal times for day traders, plus the opening range breakout and opening gap setups. This book zeros in on the shorter time scales. It also includes a chapter on horror stories, which is an interesting read all by itself. I interview traders and discuss their botched trades. Trading Basics: Evolution of a Trader . Focus: Information youll need when trading or investing in the stock market. This book covers subjects like how much money youll need for tradinginvesting, position sizing, scaling in and out of positions, leverage, dollar cost averaging, portfolio composition, how long to hold a stock, with entire chapters dedicated to stop placement, and support amp resistance. It has a chapter on 45 tips every trader should know. This book tests each idea to see how well it performs and provides an in-depth look at what you need to invest and trade stocks. Trading Classic Chart Patterns .Focus: a scoring system for chart patterns. The book introduces a scoring system to help you select the most popular chart patterns that lead to big gains. Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Focus: A beginners guide to chart patterns This book is an entry level guide to chart patterns, taking you from how to recognize them, what are minor highs and lows, constructing trendlines (Part I), and into the many varieties of chart patterns (part II), ending with buy setups (part III) and sell signals (part IV). This narrative book has lots of color charts and also includes quizzes, which are difficult but fun to take. One Testimonial Heres a testimonial thats worth reading not for what he says about my books (which is nice) but about his success trading the markets. Dear Mr. Bulkowski, Im a 22-year old college student and an options trader. For the last year and four months, before June, I virtually traded options at real time, turning one hundred thousand into five million. Then, at the beginning of the summer, I opened my first real money account, and have made a little less than 1,200 on my account, never having more than 30 of my entire account invested at one time, never having more than 15 in one stock (now no more than 10, eventually Ill get it down to having no more than 5). I got started in charts with Getting Started in Chart Patterns . I followed that book with Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . and followed that with Trading Classic Chart Patterns . with the recommendations listed on Dan Zangers site. I loved those books so much that I bought Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts . since Im a fan of charts. I was amazed at how much I had already figured out. You put names to what I was just observing and statistics that made me even more profitable. I keep both your encyclopedias next to my computer while I go over my stocks ever night, and I see a break out. My parents are mad at you because now they cant claim me on their taxes this year. Just kidding, I bought my dad the boat he always wanted because they matched my account which gave me a few extra dollars to play with. I hope your trading is doing well and your doing well. Thank You So Much. Your Books Are Awesome. Chart Patterns: After the Buy I looked at thousands of chart patterns to discover how they behaved after placing a trade. Then I used that knowledge to help predict which chart patterns would outperform. The book covers the most popular chart patterns but also other seldom-discussed patterns, too. View a chapter excerpt on double bottoms (pdf: 1.58 mb) by clicking the link, courtesy of John Wiley amp Sons. Chart Patterns: After the Buy Table of Contents Heres what Amazon has to say. Chart Patterns: After the Buy goes beyond simple chart pattern identification to show what comes next. Author and stock trader Thomas Bulkowski is one of the industrys most respected authorities in technical analysis for this book, he examined over 43,000 chart patterns to discover what happens after you buy the stock. His findings are detailed here, to help you select better buy signals, avoid disaster, and make more money. Bulkowski analyzed thousands of trades to identify common paths a stock takes after the breakout from a chart pattern. By combining those paths, he discovered the typical routes a stock takes, which he calls configurations. Match your chart to one of those configurations and you will know, before you buy . how your trade will likely perform. Now you can avoid potentially disastrous trades to focus on the big winners. Each chapter illustrates the behavior of a specific pattern. Identification guidelines help even beginners recognize common patterns, and expert analysis sheds light on the period of the stocks behavior that actually affects your investment. Youll discover ideal buy and sell setups, how to set price targets, and more, with almost 370 charts and illustrations to guide you each step of the way. Coverage includes the most common and popular patterns, but also the lesser-known ones like bad earnings surprises, price mirrors, price mountains, and straight-line runs. Whether youre new to chart patterns or an experienced professional, this book provides the insight you need to select better trades. Identify chart patterns Select better buy signals Predict future behavior Learn the best stop locations Knowing the pattern is one thing, but knowing how often a stop will trigger and how often you can expect a stock to reach its target price is another matter entirely-and it impacts your trade performance immensely. Chart Patterns: After the Buy is the essential reference guide to using chart patterns effectively throughout the entire life of the trade. Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition Chart pattern analysis is not only one of the most important investing tools, but also one of the most popular. Filled with expert insights and practical advice from one of the best in the business, Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition helps new and seasoned traders alike profit by tracking and identifying specific chart patterns. Substantially revised and expanded, this new edition of the popular guide now includes additional charts for ETFs and mutual funds. It introduces more than 40 key chart formations, as well as trading tactics that can be used in conjunction with them. It supplies actual trades (with dollar amounts), along with author Thomas Bulkowskis frank discussion of how trading behavior can affect the bottom line. Interwoven throughout the technical presentations are fascinating anecdotes drawn from the authors quarter-century as a professional trader that vividly demonstrate how one of the best in the business leverages the power of chart patterns. Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition Table of Contents Preface to First and Second Editions Acknowledgments Testimonial I started out in late 2003 with 123,000 in our multiple IRA accounts. My results, focusing exclusively on the Precious Mining Junior Exploration Companies, really took off AFTER I read your Getting Started in Chart Patterns book. By March 2006, our IRA accounts had exceeded 1,000,000. Your explanations of Support amp Resistance Fibonacci retracements and High, Tight Flag formations really paid off -- email from Rich K. of California Endorsements (from the book cover): When it comes to chart reading, Thomas Bulkowski can be categorized as a sui generis (constituting a class alone). Combining objective analysis with a fictional element has resulted in a highly entertaining read, one that any trader will benefit from. Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan, Editor of Technical Analysis of Stocks amp Commodities magazine. Nobody explains the nuts and bolts of how - exactly - to use chart patterns to make real money in trading like Tom Bulkowski. I always do better in my own trading after reading a Bulkowski book. This is the practical, down-to-earth guidance you have been looking for in books on technical analysis. Bulkowski doesnt give you platitudes - he gives you live examples. Even better, he admits that patterns dont always deliver what we expect and he quantifies both success and failure rates for the top moneymaking patterns. Nobody writes about chart work better than Bulkowski. - Barbara Rockefeller, independent trader and advisor (rts-forex), author of Technical Analysis for Dummies. In Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Bulkowski offer easy-to-apply advice for looking at charts and making them work more effectively for you in your trading. It is his passion it probably also will become yours after reading this book. A must for budding technicians - Gail Osten, Executive Editor of Stocks, Futures amp Options (SFO) magazine. Trading Basics: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with the inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Trading Basics The first book in the Evolution of a Trader series begins with the basics, creating a solid foundation of terms and techniques. Although you may understand market basics, you will learn from this book. How do I know Take this quiz. If you have to guess at the answers, then you need to buy this book. If you get some of them wrong, then imagine what you are missing. Answers are at the end of the quiz. From Chapter 2, Money Management 1. True or false: Trading a constant position size can have disastrous results. 2. True or false: A market order to cancel a buy can be denied if it is within two minutes of the Nasdaqs open. 3. True or false: Dollar cost averaging underperforms. From Chapter 3: Do Stops Work 1. True or false: Fibonacci retracements offer no advantage over any other number as a turning point. 2. True or false: A chandelier stop hangs off the high price. 3. True or false: Stops cut profit more than they limit risk. From Chapter 4: Support and Resistance 1. True or false: Peaks with below average volume show more resistance. 2. True or false: Support gets stronger over time. 3. True or false: The middle of a tall candle is no more likely to show support or resistance than any other part. From Chapter 5: 45 Tips Every Trader Should Know 1. True or false: Fibonacci extensions are no more accurate than any other tool for determining where price might reverse. 2a True or false: Only bullish divergence (in the RSI indicator) works and only in a bull market. 2b. True or false: Bullish divergence (in the RSI indicator) fails to beat the market more often than it works. 3. True or false: Price drops faster than it rises. From Chapter 6: Finding and Fixing What Is Wrong 1. True or false: The industry trend is more important than the market trend. 2. True or false: Holding a trade too long is worse than selling too early. 3. True or false: Sell in May and go away. The answer to every statement is true. Trading Basics Table of Contents Chapter 1: How to Retire at 36 Chapter 2: Money Management Trading: How Much Money, Honey Order Types: Read The Fine Print Position Sizing: My Story Position Sizing by Market Condition: Bull or Bear How Many Stocks to Hold A Better Way Portfolio Composition Hold Time: How Long is Long Enough Hold Time: My Trades The Money Management Matrix Should You Scale Into Positions Averaging Down: Throwing Away Money or Smart Choice Scaling Out of Positions: A Profitable Mistake Dollar-Cost-Averaging: Good or Bad Using Leverage: An Expensive Lesson Leverage Guidelines Checklist Chapter 3: Do Stops Work What Is Hold Time Loss Mental Stop: For Professionals Only Minor High or Low Stop: A Good Choice Squaring Off Round Numbers Chart Pattern Stop: Too Costly Stopped by a Moving Average The Truth about Trendlines Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with t he inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Fundamental Analysis This book explains and describes the test results of various fundamental factors such as book value, price-to-earnings ratio, and so on, to see how important they are to stock selection and performance. The Fundamental Analysis Summary chapter provides tables of fundamental factors based on hold times of one, three, and five years that shows which factor is most important to use for those anticipated hold times. The tables provide a handy reference for buy-and-hold investors or for other trading styles that wish to own a core portfolio of stocks based on fundamental analysis. Chapters such as How to Double Your Money, Finding 10-Baggers, and Trading 10-Baggers put the fundamentals to work. The chapter titled Selling Buy-and-Hold helps solve the problem of when to sell long-term holdings. Position Trading The second part of the book explores position trading. It introduces market timing to help remove the risk of buying and holding a stock for years. Have you heard the phrase, Trade with the trend How often does a stock follow the market higher or lower The section titled, What is Market Influence on Stocks provides the answer. This part of the book looks at how chart patterns can help with position trading. It discloses the 10 most important factors that make chart patterns work and then blends them into a scoring system. That system can help you become a more profitable position trader when using chart patterns. Six actual trades are discussed to show how position trading works and when it does not. Consider them as roadmaps that warn when the road is bumpy and when the market police are patrolling. Fundamental Analysis and Position Trading Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Buy and Hold What Is Buy and Hold Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader The three books in the Evolution of a Trader series were written for people unfamiliar with the inner workings of the stock market, but will curl the toes of professionals, too. Research is used to prove the ideas discussed, but is presented in an easy to understand and light-hearted manner. You will find the books to be as entertaining as they are informative and packed with moneymaking tips and ideas. Use the ideas presented here to hone your trading style and improve your success. Whether you are a novice who has never purchased a stock but wants to, or a professional money manager who trades daily, these books are a necessary addition to any market enthusiasts bookshelf. Swing Trading The last book of the three covers Swing and Day Trading: Evolution of a Trader . The first part of the book highlights swing trading techniques, explains how to use chart patterns to swing trade, swing selling, event patterns (common stock offerings, trading Dutch auction tender offers, earnings releases, rating changes, and so on) and other trading setups. It tears apart a new tool called the chart pattern indicator. The indicator is not a timing tool, but a sentiment indicator that is great at calling major market turns. Day Trading Day trading reviews the basics including home office setup, cost of day trading, day trading chart patterns, and the opening range breakout. It discusses research into the major reversal times each day and what time of the day is most likely to set the days high and low-valuable information to a day trader. An entire chapter discusses the opening gap setup and why fading the gap is the best way to trade it. Another chapter discusses the opening range breakout setup and questions whether it works. Ten horror stories from actual traders complete the series. They have been included to give you lasting nightmares. Swing and Day Trading Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Swing Trading Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Visual Guide to Chart Patterns is a concise and accessible visual guide to identifying, understanding, and using chart patterns to predict the direction and extent of price moves. Packed with visual learning enhancements and exercises, this innovative book helps savvy investors and professionals alike master the essential skills of chart pattern recognition. Follow along as chart pattern expert Thomas Bulkowski teaches you to recognize important peaks and valleys that form patterns-footprints of the smart money. Nearly 200 color charts assist in providing a step-by-step approach to finding those footprints, interpreting them, and following them. Popular patterns such as head-and-shoulders, double tops and bottoms, triangles, gaps, flags, and pennants are just a few of the many patterns explored throughout the book. For the sophisticated trader or investor, the book also provides statistical research to support the claims of pattern behavior, trading signals, and setups, in an easy to understand way. Discusses chart pattern identification guidelines, psychology, variations, failures, and buy and sell signals Covers the most popular and common chart patterns as well as lesser-known ones like throwbacks, pullbacks, and busted patterns Incorporates quizzes, step-by-step exercises, enhanced graphics and video tutorials (e-book only) to immerse the reader in the world of chart patterns Designed for use by investors and traders, from beginners to experts looking for a practical, easy-to-use guide, comprehensive reference, Bloomberg Visual Guide to Chart Patterns provides a sophisticated introduction to the world of chart patterns. The following is a detailed table of contents that lists major topics covered in the book. This was taken from my manuscript and not from the published text. Some of the content may be different in the published version. Visual Guide to Chart Patterns Table of Contents Part 1: The Basics Chapter 1: Pattern Recognition Made Easy Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Before I get to the slick marketing message, let me give you a few examples of how I use the information in my Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts book. Imagine that price has been trending upward for 5 bars and you see a bearish engulfing candle pattern. Looking up the candle in the book, you read that it acts as a bearish reversal 79 of the time (page 308), and that 74 of the time (page 312) price reaches its price target (the height of the candle projected downward). If you then see price begin to falter, like it is thinking of reversing, you can exit the trade ahead of everyone else. Before I make a trade, I look at the probability of the candle acting as a reversal or continuation, and how far price can be expected to move once I am in the trade (based on the candle height). That information is in my book, and it is well worth the cost of it. Let me give you another example. For Apple stock (AAPL) on November 13, 2007, I found an above the stomach candle. The book says (page 89) that the candle acts as a bullish reversal 66 of the time. The upward target is 183.39 with a 61 probability of reaching 191.33 (page 93). A downward target is 139.84 with a 53 probability of reaching 130.28. The current close is 169.96. After a bumpy start, the stock moved up in a straight-line run to 187.70 on November 30, 2007 before pausing for a few days. That is the kind of information you can get from my book, and that is how I put it to good use. It gives me an edge over other traders that do not have such information. In short, it helps me make money. Here is the slick marketing message: Candlestick patterns are footprints of the smart money and deciphering those footprints properly can bring traders and investors riches. Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts takes an in-depth look at 103 candlesticks, from identification guidelines, to statistical analysis of their behavior, to detailed trading tactics. Never before has a book combined a comprehensive list of candlesticks with a statistical review of their performance. until now. This easy to read and use reference book follows the same format as the best-selling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns. In each chapter of Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts youll find: Behavior and Rank shows how each candle is theoretically supposed to work and how it actually does, with rankings against other candlesticks plus the psychology behind the pattern. Identification Guidelines describe what to look for. Statistics include the following tables: general statistics, height statistics, volume stats, reversal rates, and performance indicators. Trading Tactics discuss strategies to increase profits and minimize risk Sample Trade walks you through a hypothetical or actual trade using real data. For Best Performance is a quick reference table of selection tips to boost performance Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts also includes chapters covering important findings, a statistics summary, glossarymethodology, and a visual index to make candlestick identification easy. Endorsements (from the book cover): Great research, great organization, and a wealth of information. Not only does Tom identify the best formations, he shows the practical way to trade each one. And, he puts the best results right in front, rather than playing hide-and-seek with the reader. You dont need to be a chartist to get value from this book. I highly recommend it. -- Perry Kaufman, author of New Trading Systems and Methods, Fourth Edition Man cannot live on bread alone, and according to Tom Bulkowskis research, one cannot trade by candlesticks alone. Toms intensive statistical work seeks out the truth in the frequency and reliability of trading with candlestick charts. His exhaustive and thorough research will give the reader an eye opener to help guide them in their trading decisions. This is a must-read edition of a high-caliber piece of trading literature for every trader who uses candlecharts. -- John Person, author of Candlestick and Pivot Point Trading Triggers and President of Nationalfutures. When I wrote the Third Edition of Candlestick Charting Explained . I believed I had thoroughly covered every aspect of this respectable analysis technique. Tom has written a solid reference that can easily be used in coordination with other books in this exciting field. The Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts is a reference that every technical analyst will want to own. -- Gregory L. Morris, Senior Portfolio Manager, PMFM, Inc, and author of Candlestick charting explained, third edition and The Complete Guide to Market Breadth Indicators. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Second Edition In this revised and expanded second edition of the bestselling Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Thomas Bulkowski updates the classic with new performance statistics for both bull and bear markets and 23 new patterns, including a second section devoted to ten event patterns. Bulkowski tells you how to trade the significant events -- such as quarterly earnings announcements, retail sales, stock upgrades and downgrades -- that shape todays trading and uses statistics to back up his approach. This comprehensive new edition is a must-have reference if youre a technical investor or trader. From the Inside Flap The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . recognized as the premier reference on chart pattern analysis, extends its lead with this Second Edition. This definitive text includes new bull and bear market statistics, performance sorted by volume shape and trend, more than a dozen additional chart patterns, and a new section covering ten event patterns. Significant events-such as earnings announcements, stock upgrades and downgrades-shape todays trading, and Bulkowski gives readers the best information on what happens after those events occur. He also shows you how to trade them and uses reliable statistics to back it all up. In each chapter of Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Second Edition youll learn the following about each pattern: Results Snapshot -A statistical summary of pattern behavior, including its performance rank, break even failure rate, average rise or decline-all separated by breakout direction and market type (bull or bear) Tour -A broad introduction to the pattern Identification Guidelines -Characteristics to look for Focus on Failures -What failed patterns look like, why they failed, and how to avoid them Statistics -The numbers and what they tell you, separated into bullbear markets and breakout direction, including average rise or decline, failure rates, volume shapes, performance by size, and busted pattern performance Trading Tactics -Strategies to increase profits and minimize risk Sample Trade -Puts it all together, showing the chart pattern in action, with hypothetical or actual trades using real data For Best Performance -A table of selection tips to boost performance Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . Second Edition also includes summary tables ranking chart- and event-pattern performance for easy reference a glossary a chapter on methodology explaining what each statistical table entry means and how it was calculated and a visual index to make chart pattern identification a snap. The result is todays most comprehensive and valuable technical analysis reference-one that will save you critical time in identifying chart patterns and increase your likelihood of buying near the price bottom and selling near the top. This book was named one of the years top investment books in 2003 by Stock Traders Almanac 2003 (page 98). The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns has been cited in Candlesticks, Fibonacci, and Chart Pattern Trading Tools by Robert Fischer and Jens Fischer ( pages 88-89, 107), Technical Analysis for Dummies by Barbara Rockefeller ( pages 154 - 165), Advanced Options Pricing Models, by Jeffrey Katz and Donna McCormick (page 382) and many other titles (Amazon has the full list). The Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns is available in Orthodox Chinese and German, Russian, French and Simplified Chinese translations are pending. Amazon has a 8220search inside the book8221 where you can look at the table of contents, view an excerpt, and do a search. Endorsements (from the book cover): The most complete reference to chart patterns available. It goes where no one has gone before. Bulkowski gives hard data on how good and bad the patterns are. A must-read for anyone thats ever looked at a chart and wondered what was happening. -- Larry Williams, trader and author of Long-Term Secrets to Short-Term Trading. Chart patterns are the basics behind most trading methods, and this book is a great achievement in a highly useful format. Bulkowski has taken an intelligent and thoughtful approach to producing a practical guide to understanding and trading chart formations. -- Perry Kaufman, author of New Trading Systems and Methods, Fourth Edition and A Short Course in Technical Trading. Praise for the first edition Not since Edwards and Magee has someone put together so comprehensive an assemblage of market behavior expressed graphically. No chartist should be without this book. -- John Sweeney, Interim Editor Technical Analysis of Stocks amp Commodities. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns . is a valuable contribution to the existing literature on charting and should be considered an indispensable reference by any serious chart trader. -- Edward D. Dobson, President, Traders Press, Inc. Meticulously researched, complete, and insightful, the Encyclopedia has earned a permanent place on my trading desk as a highly valued resource. -- Thomas A. Bierovic, Manager, Strategy Testing amp Development, Omega Research, Inc. Trading Classic Chart Patterns Trading Classic Chart Patterns is a combination narrative and reference book (mostly reference). This book was named 8220The best investment book of the year8221 by Stock Traders Almanac 2003 (see page 94 of that book). Trading Classic Chart Patterns has been cited in Candlesticks, Fibonacci, and Chart Pattern Trading Tools by Robert Fischer and Jens Fischer (Wiley 2003, pages 88-89). Translations into Simplified Chinese and German are pending. In his follow-up to the well-received Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Thomas Bulkowski gives traders a practical game plan to capitalize on established chart patterns. Written for the novice investor but with techniques for the professional, Trading Classic Chart Patterns includes easy-to-use performance tables, vivid case studies, and a scoring system that makes trading chart patterns simple. This comprehensive guide skillfully gives investors straightforward solutions to profitably trading chart patterns. Trading Classic Chart Patterns also serves as a handy reference guide for favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and double and triple bottoms. Filled with numerous techniques, strategies, and insights, Trading Classic Chart Patterns fits perfectly into any pattern traders arsenal. From the Inside Flap From the author of the Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns comes his latest work, Trading Classic Chart Patterns, a groundbreaking primer on how to trade the most popular stock patterns. Written for the novice investor but containing techniques for the seasoned professional, this comprehensive guide includes easy-to-use performance tables supported by statistical research. By using a simple scoring system, youll learn how to predict the performance of a chart pattern almost by looking at it. If youre new to chart patterns, technical analysis, or to stock market investing itself, the Getting Started section provides new ideas on trendlines, support and resistance, placing stops, and avoiding common investment mistakes. As your trading knowledge and experience increase, the Trading Classic Chart Patterns section will serve as a handy reference guide for your favorite chart patterns, including broadening tops, head-and-shoulders, rectangles, triangles, and triple tops and bottoms. Youll quickly learn about the Adam-and-Eve combinations of double tops and bottoms, and how to select the best performers while avoiding the losers. How to use the price trend leading to a chart pattern as a gauge of future performance Why breakout gaps often improve performance-but by less than you think How tall formations perform substantially better than short ones What a partial decline is and how to buy in early for a larger profit Whether high breakout volume really improves performance How to identify horizontal consolidation regions that may stop prices dead in their tracks A new tool, called the horizon failure rate, to assess performance over time The scoring system makes trading chart patterns simple. Use the performance tables to score your stock pattern, then add up the scores. If they total above zero, the stock is an investment candidate if they are below zero, youll know to avoid that particular stock. Its that easy Trading Classic Chart Patterns is a traders reference thats destined to become a classic. This book is an invaluable resource that provides the obvious answer-Yes-for every investor who has wondered if trading chart patterns can be profitable. Endorsements (from the book cover): No one -- not even the pioneers of technical analysis like Dow, Schabacker, Edwards, and Magee -- has ever published such an in-depth and objective research on chart patterns as Thomas Bulkowski has in his Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns and his new book, Trading Classic Chart Patterns. Bulkowski sees farther, not only because he stands on the shoulders of those giants, but also because he has the creativity necessary to develop new methods of quantifying the performance of chart patterns and the tenacity required to carry out the laborious research. Highly recommended -- Thomas A. Bierovic, author Playing for Keeps in Stocks amp Futures: Three Top Trading Strategies That Consistently Beat the Markets Book Corrections The publisher corrects the books as new printings occur (in theory). If you find a mistake, then contact me, Tom Bulkowski. Chart Patterns: After the Buy The following figures have incorrect figure references. For example, Figure 1.18 refers to figures in chapter 2 when it should refer to chapter 1. Heres a list of the figures that need correction: 1.18, 2.18, 3.20, 4.23, 5.18, 6.15, 8.14, 9.20, 10.15, 15.21, 17.10, 18.10, 22.24, 23.26, 24.21 Encyclopedia of Candlestick Charts Page 11: Change chart patterns to candlesticks in the first paragraph, second sentence: The percentage of chart patterns with breakouts within a third of the designated. should read, The percentage of candlesticks with breakouts within a third of the designated. Fix the last two paragraphs by swapping the phrases, overhead resistance with underlying support. Find: Gaps in an uptrend (rising window): Price finds overhead resistance and replace with: Gaps in an uptrend (rising window): Price finds underlying support In the last paragraph, find, Gaps in a downtrend (falling window): Price finds underlying support and replace with, Gaps in a downtrend (falling window): Price finds overhead resistance Page 182, two lines below Behavior and Rank heading: Change 60 of th time to Change 60 of the time Page 407: change the Figure 46.2 caption from bearish to bullish harami cross. Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, 2nd Edition Page 28: Short-term bearish reversal should be Short-term bullish continuation Page 29: Short-term bearish continuation should be Short-term bearish reversal Page 111: Table 6.8 under Trade the trend lines. In the first sentence, change broad to tall so it should read If the formation is especially tall. Page 111: Find Trade the trend lines stops. highlighted near the bottom of the page. Change wide, to tall, so it should read If the formation is especially tall. Page 138: Second line at the top. Change 30 and 60 to 30 degrees and 60 degrees. It should read, The slope of the price trend line should rise from about 30 degrees at the start to 60 degrees or higher. Page 143, under Width. Replace the word tall with wide as in Narrow patterns perform better than wide ones in a bull market. Page 196. Change Surprising Findings to Throwbacks hurt performance and so do breakout day gaps. Page 197. Change Surprising Findings to Pullbacks hurt performance and so do breakout day gaps. Page 235. Third paragraph from the top, find only 15 times in this study and change it to 18 times. Change 383 in the following sentence to 371. Page 248, Table 15.1, Breakout volume. Change Heavy to Light as in Light breakout volume is best. Page 248, bottom of page, Breakout volume. Change the sentence to read, Look for light breakout volume but do not discard an EADB just because the breakout occurs on above-average volume. Two changes were made to the sentence, the words heavy to light and below to above. Page 253, in Average formation length, change a month to 2 months. Page 268, in Formation end to breakout. Change Measured from the left bottom to Measured from the right bottom Page 347, Text for the example says the winloss ratio is 4.75 to 1 but its actually less because of the entry price (the bottom of the flag). That lowers the profit potential and raises the risk, so the ratio is narrower. If you forget about the ratio, the method of calculating a price target (the measure rule) is correct. Page 369, under Percentage closed. Change as do downward breakouts in a bear market to bull market. Page 376 to 388, even numbered pages, the header should read Head-and-Shoulders Bottoms not Heads. Page 379, line 4 down from the top. Change by signal sooner to buy signal sooner. Page 406 to 436, even numbered pages, the header should read Head-and-Shoulders not Heads. Page 515 under Reversal or continuation in the Statistics section. Change pattern on exit to pattern or exit. Page 532, third line down from the top. Change about a week shorter to about a week longer. Page 627, Table 41.1, Width. Change trend to tend as in Scallops tend to be wider. Page 668. Change 5 to 10 in the line, With a breakout price of 21.11 and a target of 19, is a 5 decline. Page 693. Swap Wide and narrow in the paragraph that begins Width. Wide patterns perform better than narrow ones. Page 731. Change higher to lower in surprising findings table as in Heavy breakout volume helps push prices LOWER. Page 756: swap 164 and 197 in Table 49.2. It should read: 197 R and 164 C Page 761, Table 49.8, measure rule. Change highest high to breakout price as in . add the difference to the breakout price or for downward breakouts. Page 902: Table 59.5 is wrong. Here is the corrected table. Page 950, page bottom: Short-term bearish continuation should be Short-term bearish reversal Page 970. Break-even failure rate rank for Rectangle Bottoms, down breakout. Rank should be 14, not 15. And change Rectangles to Rectangle. Overall Rank changes from 12 to 11 and the others move up by 1 through Island Reversals, down breakout (which has an overall rank of not 21 but 20). Page 972, about a third of the way down. Change Cup with Handdle to Cup with Handle. Getting Started in Chart Patterns Page 23, second bullet item down from the top. Should read Expect a larger price rise not decline. Page 218, Broadening Formation, Right-Angled and Ascending picture in the lower left. Ignore the arrow. Page 219, Table 9.3. Change -50 to 50. Page 219, Paragraph immediately below Table 9.3. Change downward breakouts, to upward breakouts, Trading Classic Chart Patterns Page 63, Table 3.3. Change Percentage above Breakout Price to Percentage above or below Breakout Price Page 164, Table 8.15. Third column, Adam amp Adam should be Eve amp Adam Written by and copyright copy 2005-2017 by Thomas N. Bulkowski. สงวนลิขสิทธิ์. ข้อจำกัดความรับผิดชอบ: คุณมีส่วนรับผิดชอบต่อการตัดสินใจลงทุนของคุณ ดูข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมที่ PrivacyDisclaimer Books: The original laptop.
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